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气象:2020,46(5):666-674
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中国雨凇的时空变化
汪卫平,杨修群,张东海
(贵州省气候中心,贵阳 550002; 南京大学大气科学学院,南京 210023)
Spatio-Temporal Changes of Glaze in China
WANG Weiping,YANG Xiuqun,ZHANG Donghai
(Guizhou Climate Centre, Guiyang 550002; School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023)
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投稿时间:2019-02-12    修订日期:2019-11-04
中文摘要: 基于1954—2017年中国2426个台站的日雨凇资料分析了中国雨凇日数的气候特征和变化特征。中国的雨凇主要出现在新疆和中国的103°E以东地区,主要区域有三个,分别是陕甘宁三省(区)交界、河南—湖北东部、江西—湖南—贵州—云贵川交界,其中第三个区域范围最大、雨凇日数最多,平均每年单站可达5~50 d,海拔3 〖KG-*5〗047 m的峨眉山雨凇日数(128 d)为全国最多。黄河以南的雨凇区域内,海拔1 〖KG-*5〗000 m以上站点雨凇日数易多,峨眉山、南岳、威宁、庐山是我国雨凇日数最多的几个站。我国雨凇基本出现在9月至次年5月,最早出现最晚结束的区域在天山山脉、陕甘宁交界、云贵川交界站点。从范围大小、日数上均以江西—湖南—贵州—云贵川交界区域突出,该区域雨凇日数在出现时段内呈主峰型分布,出现时间主要集中在隆冬季节冷空气最活跃的1月中旬到2月上旬。三个主雨凇区的雨凇开始和结束日期无明显年代际差异,而日雨凇概率有明显的年代际变化特征,1961—2016年期间的前26年明显高于后30年。1961—2016年全国雨凇日数整体呈减少趋势,1990年后除贵州—湖南主雨凇区外,雨凇范围明显减小。
Abstract:Climatic characteristics and changes of glaze days in China were analyzed with the daily glaze observational dataset at 2426 stations in China from 1954 to 2017. China’s glaze mainly occurs in Xinjiang and the parts east to 103°E of China. There are three major glaze zones: the area cross the borders of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia provinces, the area of Henan and eastern Hubei provinces, and the area of Jiangxi, Hunan and Guizhou provinces, of which the third area is the central area, with 5-50 glaze days per year in average at every station. The 128 glaze days when glaze occurs in Mountain Emei at an altitude of 3 〖KG-*5〗047 meters are the most in China. In the glaze region south of the Yellow River, the glaze days at the stations with altitude more than 1 〖KG-*5〗000 meters are possibly more. The glaze occurs from September to May of next year, showing a peak pattern distribution with a beginning of glaze mainly from winter season when the cold air is the most active from January to mid-February. The probability of number of glaze days has obvious interdecadal variation characteristics, and it is significantly higher during the first 26 years than the latter 30 years during 1961-2016. From 1961 to 2016, the total number of glaze days in China is decreasing, and the area of glaze is significantly reduced since 1990 except for the main area of Guizhou and Hunan provinces.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41865007)和黔气科登[202003-01]共同资助
引用文本:
汪卫平,杨修群,张东海,2020.中国雨凇的时空变化[J].气象,46(5):666-674.
WANG Weiping,YANG Xiuqun,ZHANG Donghai,2020.Spatio-Temporal Changes of Glaze in China[J].Meteor Mon,46(5):666-674.