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气象:2020,46(5):675-686
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上海地区2017年三次短时重度污染过程变化特征及其气象影响因素
陈镭,周广强,毛卓成,瞿元昊
(长三角环境气象预报预警中心,上海 200030; 上海市气象与健康重点实验室,上海 200030)
Variation Characteristics and Meteorological Impact Factors of Three Short Time Severe Air Pollutions in Shanghai in 2017
CHEN Lei,ZHOU Guangqiang,MAO Zhuocheng,QU Yuanhao
(Yangtze River Delta Center for Environmental Meteorology Prediction and Warning, Shanghai 200030; Shanghai Key Laboratory of Meteorology and Health, Shanghai 200030)
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投稿时间:2018-12-23    修订日期:2019-12-27
中文摘要: 2017年10月29日、11月2—3日和7—8日上海地区出现了三次PM2.5短时重度污染过程,根据环流形势可以将其分为两种污染类型:10月29日为输送型污染,具有污染输送过程快,污染持续时间短的特点;11月2—3日和7—8日为静稳叠加输送型污染,具有污染输送过程较慢,污染持续时间长的特点。分析这三次污染过程的气象要素特征可知,小的风速、稳定的垂直结构及下沉运动使得污染物在水平和垂直方向上都不易扩散出去,为污染物的积聚和污染的长时间维持创造了有利条件。另外,分析北京—上海一线PM2.5浓度、地面气象要素和垂直环流的剖面图发现,10月29日污染带自北向南呈窄带状分布,中低空和近地面对上海的污染输送都有贡献;11月的两次污染过程污染自北向南持续时间较长,分布范围较广,对上海的污染输送以近地面传输为主。计算三次污染过程的静稳指数和输送指数,进一步验证了10月29日的重度污染由外源输送造成,而11月的两次污染则由本地积累和外源输送叠加造成。应用FLEXPART扩散模式和华东区域大气环境数值预报系统对11月的两次污染过程进行定量分析,得到与观测数据分析一致的结论,同时发现这两次污染过程的潜在来源区域均为上海周边地区,来源集中,且江苏、浙江和安徽都有贡献。
Abstract:Three serious PM2.5 pollution events which occurred in Shanghai on 29 October, 2-3 November and 7-8 November 2017 were investigated. They can be divided into two pollution types according to atmospheric circulation as follows. The pollution event on October 29 was transport pollution which features fast transportation and short period of pollution; the other two are static stability superimposed transport pollution which features slow transportation and long duration. By analyzing the weather conditions of the three pollution events, we found that the low wind speed, stable vertical stratification and descending motion made air pollutants difficult to disperse. The cross sections of the PM2.5 concentration, 〖JP2〗surface meteo 〖JP〗rological elements and vertical circulation from Beijing to Shanghai showed that the pollution belt was distributed in a narrow strip from north to south on October 29, and the wind which was in the mid low level and the near surface layer contributed to the pollution transport in Shanghai; the two pollution events in November had longer durations and wider ranges, and the pollution transport channel of Shanghai was the near surface layer. Calculating the stable weather index and the transport intensity index of the three pollution events were also carried out to prove that the pollution on October 29 was caused by transportation and the other two were caused by the local accumulation and transportation. By using the FLEXPART model and the 〖JP2〗Regional Atmospheric Environmental Modeling System for Eastern China (RAEMS). It was found that the potential sources of the two pollution processes in November were all around Shanghai, and the sources were concentrated, with coutributions from Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Anhui.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(91644223)和上海市科委扬帆计划项目(18YF1421200)共同资助
引用文本:
陈镭,周广强,毛卓成,瞿元昊,2020.上海地区2017年三次短时重度污染过程变化特征及其气象影响因素[J].气象,46(5):675-686.
CHEN Lei,ZHOU Guangqiang,MAO Zhuocheng,QU Yuanhao,2020.Variation Characteristics and Meteorological Impact Factors of Three Short Time Severe Air Pollutions in Shanghai in 2017[J].Meteor Mon,46(5):675-686.