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气象:2017,43(4):468-476
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2016年中国气候主要特征及主要天气气候事件
(国家气候中心,北京 100081)
Climatic Characteristics and Major Meteorological Events over China in 2016
(National Climate Centre, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2017-02-14    修订日期:2017-03-13
中文摘要: 2016年,全国气候异常,极端天气气候事件多,暴雨洪涝、台风和风雹等气象灾害较突出,气候年景差。全国平均气温较常年偏高0.8℃,为1951年以来第三高;四季气温均偏高,其中,夏季气温为1961年以来同期最高。四季降水量均偏多,冬、秋季分别为1961年以来同期最多。全国平均年降水量730.0 mm,较常年偏多16%,为1951年以来最多。华南前汛期和西南雨季开始早;入梅早、出梅晚,梅雨期长,雨量多;华北雨季短,雨量多;华西秋雨短,雨量少。2016年,全国暴雨过程多,南北洪涝并发。登陆台风数量多、平均强度强。强对流天气多,损失偏重,北方风雹灾害突出。气温波动大,夏季高温影响范围广。秋、冬京津冀及周边地区霾天气频繁。其他灾害如干旱、低温冷冻害、雪灾和春季沙尘影响均偏轻。
Abstract:The climate in China was very abnormal in 2016 when there were more extreme climate events, such as severe disasters and damages caused by the heavy rainfalls, floods and intensive typhoons. The annual mean air temperature over China was 0.8℃ higher than normal, which is the third warmest since 1951. The averaged air temperatures in every season are above normal, especially the summer is the warmest since 1961. Precipitation was more than normal in all the four seasons, and the winter and autumn precipitations have broken the historical records since 1961. The annual mean precipitation in China was 730.0 mm with 16% more than normal, breaking the historical record since 1951. The first rainy season in South China and rainy season in Southwest China started earlier than normal. The Meiyu event started earlier but ended later with more rainfall than normal. The rainy season in North China was not so long but rainfall amount was more. The autumn rainy period in Western China was shorter than usual, so the rainfall amount was less. In 2016, torrential rains and floods occurred more in southern and northern China. There were more landing typhoons this year and the intensity of the typhoons was stronger when landing. Severe convection weather, like hail, occurred frequently and caused heavy economic losses, especially in northern China. The temperature presented a large fluctuation during this year and the heat wave affected a wide scope over China in summer. The haze events occurred frequently in Jing Jin Ji (Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei Province) and the neighboring regions during this autumn winter period. Positively, the disasters caused by drought, low temperature freezing, heavy snow and sandstorm in spring were lighter in this year.
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基金项目:公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201406021和GYHY 201506002)共同资助
引用文本:
梅梅,姜允迪,王遵娅,刘绿柳,叶殿秀,王有民,朱晓金,蔡雯悦,侯威,黄大鹏,尹宜舟,肖风劲,钟海玲,李莹,曾红玲,赵珊珊,邵勰,王东阡,2017.2016年中国气候主要特征及主要天气气候事件[J].气象,43(4):468-476.
MEI Mei,JIANG Yundi,WANG Zunya,LIU Lüliu,YE Dianxiu,WANG Youmin,ZHU Xiaojin,CAI Wenyue,HOU Wei,HUANG Dapeng,YIN Yizhou,XIAO Fengjin,ZHONG Hailing,LI Ying,ZENG Hongling,ZHAO Shanshan,SHAO Xie,WANG Dongqian,2017.Climatic Characteristics and Major Meteorological Events over China in 2016[J].Meteor Mon,43(4):468-476.