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气象:2019,45(12):1736-1746
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气象因子对半冬性小麦灌浆速度的影响效应研究
信志红,郭建平,谭凯炎,张利华,孙义,杨荣光
(山东省东营市气象局,东营 257091; 中国气象科学研究院,北京 100081; 南京信息工程大学气象灾害预警预报与评估协同创新中心,南京 210044; 江苏省徐州市气象局,徐州 221009; 安徽省宿州市气象局,宿州 234300; 山东省泰安市气象局,泰安 271001)
Effect of Meteorological Factors on Grain Filling Rate of Semi-Winter Wheat
XIN Zhihong,GUO Jianping,TAN Kaiyan,ZHANG Lihua,SUN Yi,YANG Rongguang
(Dongying Meteorological Office of Shandong Province, Dongying 257091; Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081; Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044; Xuzhou Meteorological Office of Jiangsu Province, Xuzhou 221009; Suzhou Meteorological Office of Anhui Province, Suzhou 234300; Taian Meteorological Office of Shandong Province, Taian 271001)
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投稿时间:2018-03-23    修订日期:2019-10-08
中文摘要: 选用黄淮海冬麦区4个半冬性小麦品种郯麦98、山农18、徐麦33、皖麦52为试验材料,通过分期播种试验,利用方差分析、相关分析、逐步回归和通径分析等方法,分析半冬性小麦籽粒灌浆速度变化趋势和气象因子对灌浆速度的影响。结果表明,正常播期冬小麦灌浆速度波动性最小、千粒重最大,迟播10 d冬小麦灌浆速度波动性最大、千粒重最小;华北区品种郯麦98灌浆速度表现最稳定、千粒重最高,而黄淮区品种皖麦52灌浆速度最大;半冬性小麦灌浆持续期为35~39 d;南北气候差异是影响各品种冬小麦灌浆速度不同的原因之一。半冬性小麦各播期灌浆速度的变化趋势一致,灌浆速度变化与相关显著气象因子的变化规律相符合;灌浆速度峰值期一般出现在开花后15~25 d,迟播冬小麦最大灌浆速度出现时间较对照处理提前,不利于提高粒重;气温条件对冬小麦灌浆速度影响显著,其中最高气温要素是影响不同播期品种灌浆速度的共有关键因子。通径分析表明,最高气温对灌浆速度的作用由自身的直接效应决定,而日照时数与最低气温对灌浆速度的作用与间接效应一致;最高气温平均值对灌浆速度的影响最重要,日照时数和最低气温平均值对灌浆速度的影响较弱;最高和最低气温平均值、日照时数均为灌浆速度的限制因子,其中最高气温平均值对灌浆速度变化的决策作用最大。
Abstract:Four semi-winter wheat varieties Tanmai 98, Shannong 18, Xumai 33 and Wanmai 52 in Huanghuaihai winter wheat area were selected as test materials. Through the sowing date tests, the trends of grain filling rate and the influence of meteorological factors on the filling rate were analyzed by means of analysis of variance, correlation analysis, stepwise regression and path analysis. The results showed that the fluctuation of grain filling rate is the least and the 1000-grain weight is the highest in the normal sowing period, the late-sowed 10 d winter wheat has the highest volatility and smallest 1000-grain weight. The grain filling rate of Tanmai 98 is most stable and the 1000-grain weight is the highest in winter wheat area of North China, while the grain filling rate of Wanmai 52 is the highest in Huanghuai winter wheat area. The grain filling of semi-winter wheat usually lasts 35-39 days. The climate difference between north and south is one of the reasons for the different filling rates of winter wheat. The variation trends of the filling rate of semi-winter wheat in each sowing period are the same, and the change of filling rate is consistent with the change law of related significant meteorological factors. The peak period of grain filling generally appears 15-25 days later than flowering, and the appearance time is earlier of the maximum fil-ling rate of late-sowed winter wheat than the control treatment, which is not conducive to increasing the grain weight. The temperature conditions have significant effects on the grain filling rate of winter wheat, of which the highest temperature factor is the common key factor affecting the filling rate of different sowing dates and varieties. Path analysis showed that the effect of maximum temperature on filling rate is determined by its direct effect, while the effect of sunshine hours and minimum temperature on filling rate is consistent with indirect effect. The average of highest temperature has the most important effect on fil-ling rate, while the sunshine time and averaged minimum temperature influence the filling rate weakly. The averages of highest and lowest temperature and the sunshine hours are the limiting factors of the filling rate, of which the average of highest temperature has the greatest decision-making effect on the change of filling rate.
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基金项目:公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201506001-2、GYHY201506001-3)和中国气象局“国内外作物产量气象预报专项”共同资助
引用文本:
信志红,郭建平,谭凯炎,张利华,孙义,杨荣光,2019.气象因子对半冬性小麦灌浆速度的影响效应研究[J].气象,45(12):1736-1746.
XIN Zhihong,GUO Jianping,TAN Kaiyan,ZHANG Lihua,SUN Yi,YANG Rongguang,2019.Effect of Meteorological Factors on Grain Filling Rate of Semi-Winter Wheat[J].Meteor Mon,45(12):1736-1746.