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气象:2018,44(9):1191-1199
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1960—2015年中国西北地区大气可降水量变化特征
黄小燕,王圣杰,王小平
(中国气象局兰州干旱气象研究所,甘肃省干旱气候变化与减灾重点实验室,中国气象局干旱气候变化与减灾重点开放实验室,兰州 730020; 西北师范大学地理与环境科学学院,兰州 730070)
Variations of Precipitable Water in Northwest China During 1960-2015
HUANG Xiaoyan,WANG Shengjie,WANG Xiaoping
(Institute of Arid Meteorology Lanzhou of CMA, Key Laboratory of Arid Climate Change and Reducing Disaster of Gansu Province, Key Laboratory of Arid Climate Change and Reducing Disaster of CMA, Lanzhou 730020; College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070)
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投稿时间:2017-07-13    修订日期:2018-02-27
中文摘要: 采用中国西北地区1960—2015年113个地面气象站及24个探空站气象资料,建立西北地区大气可降水量与地面水汽压的经验关系式,计算西北地区各气象站点的大气可降水量,结合反距离加权插值、Mann Kendall检验、小波分析等方法,对西北地区近56年大气可降水量的时空分布特征及其与气象要素的关系进行分析。结果表明:近56年中国西北地区大气可降水量总体呈增加趋势,平均每10年增加0.11 mm,大气可降水量的月变化呈明显单峰型;空间分布上,大气可降水量的高值区主要分布在西北东部地区,低值区主要分布在西北中部地区;空间变化上,西北大部分地区大气可降水量呈增加趋势,以陕西南部、甘肃东南部、青海西北部、新疆等地增加趋势明显;西北地区年平均大气可降水量存在明显的突变特征和周期性变化特征,在1983年左右发生突变,主振荡周期为4 a左右;西北地区大气可降水量与平均气温、相对湿度呈正相关性,与平均风速呈负相关性。
Abstract:Based on the meteorological data from 113 surface and 24 radiosonde stations in Northwest China from 1960 to 2015, the empirical formula was established between precipitable water (PWV) and surface vapor pressure, and the PWV in Northwest China was calculated. With the methods such as inverse distance weighted, Mann Kendall test and Morlet wavelets, the temporal and spatial distribution of PWV and its relations with other meteorological elements were analyzed. The results showed that PWV has increased in last 56 years with the increasing rate of 0.11 mm per decade, and the obviously unimodal types can be examined for the monthly variations. The high PWV area is mainly in the east of Northwest China, and the middle area of Northwest China usually presents a low value. The PWV in most parts of Northwest China has increased, which is obvious in southern Shaanxi, southeastern Gansu, northwestern Qinghai and Xinjiang. The annual average PWV in Northwest China shows an obvious mutation around 1983 and a periodical change with primary period of approximately 4 years. PWV in Northwest China shows a positive correlation with mean air temperature and relative humidity, and a negative correlation with wind speed.
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基金项目:公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201506001-4)、国家自然科学基金项目(41175081,41201370,31300376)和甘肃省自然科学基金(1208RJYA025)共同资助
引用文本:
黄小燕,王圣杰,王小平,2018.1960—2015年中国西北地区大气可降水量变化特征[J].气象,44(9):1191-1199.
HUANG Xiaoyan,WANG Shengjie,WANG Xiaoping,2018.Variations of Precipitable Water in Northwest China During 1960-2015[J].Meteor Mon,44(9):1191-1199.