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气象:2015,41(4):480-488
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2014年中国气候概况
(国家气候中心,北京100081)
Climatic Characteristics over China in 2014
(Climatic Characteristics over China in 2014)
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投稿时间:2015-03-15    修订日期:2015-03-23
中文摘要: 2014年,全国平均气温较常年偏高0.5℃,与1999年并列为1961年以来第六暖年;四季气温均偏高。全国平均降水量636.2 mm,接近常年,比2013年偏少3%;降水时空分布不均,辽宁、北京和河北偏少明显,冬、春、夏三季降水量均接近常年同期,秋季偏多。华南前汛期开始早、雨量多;西南雨季开始晚、结束早、雨量少;梅雨区降水量南多北少,江淮出现空梅;华北雨季不明显,出现空汛;华西秋雨开始早、结束晚、雨量多。夏季副热带高压脊线位置偏南,南海夏季风爆发晚,东亚夏季风强度略偏弱。2014年,我国气候属正常年景,极端天气气候事件少于2013年,暴雨洪涝、干旱等灾害偏轻,因灾造成死亡人数和受灾面积明显偏少,气象灾害属于偏轻年份。
Abstract:In 2014, the annual mean air temperature over China was 0.5℃ above normal making the year become the sixth warmest year together with 1999 since 1961. Temperatures were above normal in spring, summer, autumn and winter for the whole country as a whole. The mean of annual total precipitation in 2014 in China was 636.2 mm, which was near normal with 3% less than that in 2013. In 2014, the temporal and spatial distribution of precipitation was uneven. The first rainy season in South China began earlier with a larger amount of precipitation than normal. The rainy season in Southwest China started later and ended earlier with a smaller amount of precipitation than normal. The precipitation in Meiyu region was more in the south but less in the north while the Jianghuai Region missed Meiyu during this summer. The rainy season in North China was not evident. The beginning of autumnal rain of Huaxi (Western China) started earlier and ended later with a larger amount of precipitation than normal. In 2014, some regions of South China suffered a large number of heavy rains and floods, and autumnal rainfall in Huaxi and Huanghuai Regions was frequent, but the weather and climatic extreme events happened less frequently than that in 2013, with less disasters caused by torrential rainfall, floods and droughts. The death toll and disaster hit areas were significantly less than normal. In general, 2014 was a year with less meteorological disasters.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41305056和41375069)及国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划)(2012CB955901)共同资助
引用文本:
侯威,邹旭凯,王朋岭,叶殿秀,周兵,黄大鹏,李莹,赵琳,王有民,朱晓金,赵珊珊,王阳,钟海玲,2015.2014年中国气候概况[J].气象,41(4):480-488.
HOU Wei,ZOU Xukai,WANG Pengling,YE Dianxiu,ZHOU Bing,HUANG Dapeng,LI Ying,ZHAO Lin,WANG Youmin,ZHU Xiaojin,ZHAO Shanshan,WANG Yang,ZHONG Hailing,2015.Climatic Characteristics over China in 2014[J].Meteor Mon,41(4):480-488.