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气象:2010,36(10):29-36
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南京地区雨雾的形成及其结构特征
(1.江苏省气象台, 南京 210008;2.南京信息工程大学大气物理学与大气环境重点实验室, 南京 210044;3.江苏省气象台, 南京 210009;4.南京信息工程大学大气物理学与大气环境重点实验室, 南京 210045)
Formation and Structure Characteristics of Precipitation Fog in Nanjing
(1.Jiangsu Meteorological Observatory, Nanjing 210008;2.Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics & Environment, NUIST, Nanjing 210044;3.Jiangsu Meteorological Observatory, Nanjing 210009;4.Key Laboratory for Atmospheric Physics & Environment, NUIST, Nanjing 210045)
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投稿时间:2009-10-12    修订日期:2010-04-21
中文摘要: 为研究南京冬季雾的物理化学过程,揭示空气污染与雾水化学结构的关系及建立雾的预报方法,2006—2007年冬季在南京信息工程大学进行了雾的外场综合观测试验。利用所获得的资料及南京观测站2006—2008年的常规观测资料,对雨雾天气下的天气形势和雨雾的宏、微观结构特征进行了分析。结果表明:南京地区出现雨雾的地面形势主要有锋面型、冷高压底部型和低压倒槽型;弱冷空气入侵是雨雾形成的重要条件;较强的逆温层存在,且边界层上层气温高于近地层,是形成雨雾的又一个重要的条件;雨势增强或地面风速加大,干冷空气的不断侵入,都可能造成雨雾消散。雨雾的本质就是蒸发雾。雨雾的数密度、含水量和平均直径与其他种类雾相比都比较小;雾滴谱很窄,其曲线变化成指数快速下降。
Abstract:In order to study the physical and chemical processes of Nanjing winter fog, reveal the relationship between air pollution and the chemical structure of fog water and establish fog forecasting methods, a comprehensive observation of fog during the winter of 2006 and 2007 was made in NUIST (Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology). Based on the obtained fog data and conventional meteorological observation data during 2006 to 2008 at Nanjing Meteorological Observatory, the synoptic situations and macro microstructure characteristics of precipitation fog were analyzed. Results show that: The weather situation when precipitation fog happened can be divided into 3 kinds: frontal surface pattern, pattern under high pressure, and low pressure pattern with inverted trough; Invasion of weak cold air is an important condition for the formation of precipitation fog; Another important condition is that a strong inversion layer exists, namely the temperature is higher in upper of the boundary layer than it near the surface; Rain enhancement or increasing surface wind speed, intrusion of the durative dry cold air are likely to result in dissipation of precipitation fog, the nature of which is evaporation fog. Compared with other types of fog, the number density, water content and average diameter of precipitation fog are smaller. Fog droplet spectrum is very narrow, and its curve exponentially rapidly decreases.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金(40975085)、江苏省重大科技支撑与自主创新示范工程项目(BE2008618), 科技部行业(气象)专项(GYHY(QX)2007 6 26)共同资助
引用文本:
严文莲,刘端阳,濮梅娟,李子华,2010.南京地区雨雾的形成及其结构特征[J].气象,36(10):29-36.
YAN Wenlian,LIU Duanyang,PU Meijuan,LI Zihua,2010.Formation and Structure Characteristics of Precipitation Fog in Nanjing[J].Meteor Mon,36(10):29-36.