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气象:2023,49(7):830-842
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2021年11月7日山东极端暴雪过程降水相态的多源观测特征分析
孙莎莎,孙艺,徐婷婷,王洪,杨成芳,何鹏程
(山东省气象局气象防灾减灾重点实验室,济南 250031; 山东省气象台,济南 250031; 烟台市人民政府人工影响天气办公室,山东烟台 264003;国家海洋局东海预报中心,上海 200136;山东省人民政府人工影响天气办公室,济南 250031;济南市气象台,济南 250102)
Multi-Source Observational Characteristics of Precipitation Phase During Extreme Snowstorm in Shandong on 7 November 2021
SUN Shasha,SUN Yi,XU Tingting,WANG Hong,YANG Chengfang,HE Pengcheng
(Key Laboratory of Shandong Meteorological Disaster Prevention and Reduction, Shandong Meteorological Service, Jinan 250031; Shandong Meteorological Observatory, Jinan 250031;Yantai Weather Modification Office, Shandong, Yantai 264003;East China Sea Forecast Center of State Oceanic Administration, Shanghai 200136;Shandong Weather Modification Office, Jinan 250031;Jinan Meteorological Observatory, Jinan 250102)
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投稿时间:2022-05-18    修订日期:2023-03-15
中文摘要: 利用自动气象站、双偏振雷达、毫米波云雷达、温度廓线仪和ERA5逐小时再分析资料等,分析了2021年11月7日山东西部地区暴雪甚至特大暴雪过程中降水相态的多源观测资料特征。研究表明:此次过程主要受西风槽、低涡切变线和冷锋共同影响,系统斜压性强,有低空急流配合,降雪持续时间不长,但小时雪强大,山东的西部地区出现大范围暴雪局地特大暴雪的极端降雪。多源观测资料较好地捕捉到此次过程降水相态及变化信息。风廓线雷达的风和垂直速度,双偏振雷达的相关系数和0℃层亮带,毫米波云雷达的反射率、垂直液态水含量、速度和谱宽,温度廓线仪的边界层温度及二维视频雨滴谱仪的粒子二维图像和信息都可以作为降水相态判断的指标,为0~1h短时临近预报提供参考。此次过程地面降温非常迅速,雨快速转雪,雨雪混合持续时间短。地面降温是强的负温度平流、垂直运动和非绝热作用共同导致,其中,负温度平流作用最大,非绝热次之,垂直运动作用最小。负温度平流强,且负温度平流强度随高度降低而增强,导致地面呈现出快速降温的特征。
Abstract:Based on automatic weather station, dual-polarization radar, millimeter-wave cloud radar, temperature profiler and ERA5 hourly reanalysis data, the characteristics of the multi-source observation data of the precipitation phase variation during the extremely heavy snowstorm in the western area of Shandong on 7 November 2021 are analyzed. The results show that this process was commonly influenced by the westerly trough, low vortex shear line and cold front. The system had strong baroclinicity, with low-level jet. Though the snowfall duration was not long, the hourly intensity of snow precipitation was high, resulting in extremely heavy snowfall in the western part of Shandong. The multi-source observational data captured the precipitation phase and change information well in this process. Wind and vertical velocity from wind profiler radar, correlation coefficient and 0℃ layer bright band of dual-polarization radar, reflectivity, vertical liquid water content, velocity and spectral width of millimeter-wave cloud radar, boundary layer temperature of temperature profiler and the two-dimensional images and information of particles from the 2D video raindrop spectrometer were used as indicators for judging the phase of the precipitation, so these information provided a reference for the 0-1 h short-term nowcasting. During this process, air temperature above the ground cooled very rapidly, the rain quickly turned to snow with the sleet only lasting for a short time. The cooling of air temperature above the ground was caused by the combination of strong negative temperature advection, vertical motion and non-adiabatic effect, of which, the effect of negative temperature advection was the largest, followed by precipitation diabatic effect, and the vertical motion effect in order. The strong negative temperature advection and the negative temperature advection intensity increasing with the decrease of height, led to the rapid cooling of air temperature above the ground.
文章编号:     中图分类号:P416,P445    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41975055)、山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2022QD089、ZR2022MD095)、山东省气象局重点课题(2021sdqxz10)、环渤海区域项目(QYXM202205)和山东省气象局预报员专项(SDYBY2021-05)共同资助
引用文本:
孙莎莎,孙艺,徐婷婷,王洪,杨成芳,何鹏程,2023.2021年11月7日山东极端暴雪过程降水相态的多源观测特征分析[J].气象,49(7):830-842.
SUN Shasha,SUN Yi,XU Tingting,WANG Hong,YANG Chengfang,HE Pengcheng,2023.Multi-Source Observational Characteristics of Precipitation Phase During Extreme Snowstorm in Shandong on 7 November 2021[J].Meteor Mon,49(7):830-842.