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气象:2022,48(4):459-469
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2021年全球重大天气气候事件及其成因
张颖娴,孙劭,刘远,侯威,王国复
(国家气候中心,北京 100081)
Global Major Weather and Climate Events in 2021and Possible Causes
ZHANG Yingxian,SUN Shao,LIU Yuan,HOU Wei,WANG Guofu
(National Climate Centre, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2022-03-04    修订日期:2022-03-22
中文摘要: 2021年全球平均气温较工业化前偏高1.11℃(±0.13℃),为有气象记录以来的第七暖年。全球海洋持续升温,海洋热容量和全球平均海平面高度均创历史新高,南北极海冰覆盖范围较常年偏小。年内,全球各地重大天气气候事件频发,欧亚多地遭受严重暴雨洪涝灾害,北美和亚洲等地发生严重干旱,北大西洋和北印度洋热带气旋异常活跃,欧洲和北美等地遭受高温热浪和山火,欧美及亚洲多地遭受寒流和暴风雪侵袭。成因分析表明,7月中旬中欧地区持续受切断低压控制,大西洋和地中海的水汽持续不断输送至欧洲中西部,给该地区带来了极端强降水事件并引发洪水;2月中旬对流层极涡从北极向南偏移至北美中部形成稳定的低压槽,在低压槽、有利的低层水汽输送、前期平流层爆发性增温的共同作用下,北美大部地区遭受极端低温和强暴风雪天气侵袭。
Abstract:The global surface temperature in 2021 was 1.11℃ (±0.13℃) higher than the pre-industrial level, being the seventh warmest year on record. Ocean heat content and global mean sea level have reached record highs, while the Antarctica and Arctic sea-ice extents were lower than normal. Many high-impact weather and climate events occurred across the world in 2021, including torrential rains and floods in Eurasia, severe droughts in North America and Asia, frequent tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic and North Indian Ocean, heatwaves and wildfires in Europe and North America, cold spells and snowstorms in Europe, America and Asia as well as severe convective weather events in many regions. Cause analyses suggest that in mid-July, central Europe was continuously controlled by the cut-off low pressure, and the water vapor from the Atlantic and Mediterranean was transported to central and western Europe, bringing extremely heavy precipitation and floods. In mid-February, the tropospheric polar vortex migrated southward from the Arctic to central North America, forming a stable low-pressure trough. Under the combined action of the low-pressure trough, favorable low-level water vapor transportation and the stratospheric sudden warming in the early stage, extreme low-temperatures and severe snowstorms attacked most regions of North America.
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2019YFC1510202)和中国气象局创新发展专项(CXFZ2022J068)共同资助
引用文本:
张颖娴,孙劭,刘远,侯威,王国复,2022.2021年全球重大天气气候事件及其成因[J].气象,48(4):459-469.
ZHANG Yingxian,SUN Shao,LIU Yuan,HOU Wei,WANG Guofu,2022.Global Major Weather and Climate Events in 2021and Possible Causes[J].Meteor Mon,48(4):459-469.