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气象:2022,48(2):216-228
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华北中部平原地区一次降雪过程雪水比变化特征及成因分析
张亚妮,符娇兰,胡宁,张英娟
(国家气象中心,北京 100081; 北京市气候中心,北京 100089)
Analysis of Snow-to-Liquid Ratio Characteristics and Its Mechanism of a Snowfall Event in the Plain of Central North China
ZHANG Yani,FU Jiaolan,HU Ning,ZHANG Yingjuan
(National Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081; Beijing Municipal Climate Centre, Beijing 100089)
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投稿时间:2021-01-15    修订日期:2021-10-18
中文摘要: 运用降雪深度加密观测资料,求取2020年2月14日华北中部一次降雪过程的平均雪水比(snow-to-liquid ratio,SLR),并分析了其变化特征和形成原因,发现此次过程SLR在东西方向上变化显著,即自北京平原地区至天津西部逐渐增大,再向东至天津东部又有所减小,京津两地SLR差别大。3 h平均的SLR显示北京平原地区东部和天津中北部随时间变化不大,天津南部和天津沿海地区有增大趋势。基于Cobb算法的云内SLR也具有相似的东西向变化特征,表明云内过程是此次华北中部平原地区SLR东西向变化的主要原因。北京平原地区近地层的融雪作用以及北京平原地区西南部的地表融雪加强了此变化特征。另外,通过分析误差来源发现文中研究区域的中西部地区云内SLR与由积雪深度观测计算的SLR差异较大,尤其是西部地区,这主要与该地区较高的地面2 m气温导致的近地面层的融雪作用有关,北京平原地区的误差基本上来源于此。对于天津西部,云内冰、液混合相态导致的凇附增长可能是该地区误差的主要来源。
Abstract:Based on densely observed snow depth, snow-to-liquid ratio (SLR) of a snowfall event in the plain of central North China on 14 February 2020 is studied. The variation characteristics of SLR and its reasons are discussed. Results show that the SLR increases from Beijing Plain to western Tianjin and then decreases to eastern Tianjin. The maximum value of SLR is located in the western part of Tianjin and there is a big difference of the SLR between Beijing and Tianjin. The 3 h averaged SLR shows that, in eastern plain area of Beijing and in central and northern part of Tianjin, the change of SLR with time is little. In the southern Tianjin and the coastal areas of Tianjin, by contrast, the SLR tends to increase with time. The similar characteristic of the SLR in cloud based on Cobb snow-fall algorithm is also found in west-east direction. This indicates that the process in cloud is the main factor forming the above variation of the SLR in the plain of central North China. The surface and near-surface snowmelt in Beijing intensifies this characteristic due to the higher surface temperature, surface air temperature and the weak warm layer in surface layer. In addition, differences between the SLR based on Cobb and the SLR obtained from snow depth data are analyzed. It is found that the obvious differences occur in central and western part of the research area, especially in the western part. This is related mainly to the snowmelt caused by higher air surface temperature. The difference in the plain area of Beijing basically comes from this. In western Tianjin, the difference comes probably from riming growth induced by co-existing of ice and water in clouds.
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFF0300104)、国家自然科学基金重点项目(42030611)和国家自然科学基金重大研究项目(91937301)共同资助
引用文本:
张亚妮,符娇兰,胡宁,张英娟,2022.华北中部平原地区一次降雪过程雪水比变化特征及成因分析[J].气象,48(2):216-228.
ZHANG Yani,FU Jiaolan,HU Ning,ZHANG Yingjuan,2022.Analysis of Snow-to-Liquid Ratio Characteristics and Its Mechanism of a Snowfall Event in the Plain of Central North China[J].Meteor Mon,48(2):216-228.