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气象:2021,47(6):755-766
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1961—2017年黑龙江省蒸发量演变特征及其与气候因子的关系
李秀芬,姜丽霞,李险峰,赵放,朱海霞,王萍,宫丽娟,赵慧颖
(黑龙江省气象科学研究所,哈尔滨 150030; 中国气象局东北地区生态气象创新开放实验室,哈尔滨 150030; 黑龙江省水利科学研究院,哈尔滨150080; 哈尔滨市气象局,哈尔滨 150028)
Evolution Characteristics of Evaporation and Its Relationship with Climate Factors in Heilongjiang Province from 1961 to 2017
LI Xiufen,JIANG Lixia,LI Xianfeng,ZHAO Fang,ZHU Haixia,WANG Ping,GONG Lijuan,ZHAO Huiying
(Heilongjiang Province Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Harbin 150030;Innovation and Opening Laboratory of Eco-Meteorology in Northeast China, CMA, Harbin 150030; Heilongjiang Province Hydraulic Research Institute, Harbin 150080; Harbin Meteorological Bureau, Harbin 150028)
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投稿时间:2020-02-17    修订日期:2020-07-16
中文摘要: 利用黑龙江省80个站1961—2017年器测蒸发量观测资料及常规气象观测资料,采用线性倾向估计、累积距平、Mann Kendal突变分析、数理统计和Mexican hat小波分析等方法,分析了黑龙江省年和四季器测蒸发量的时空演变特征,并探讨了其与气候因子的关系。结果表明:黑龙江省年蒸发量的空间分布的地理特征明显,其值随纬度、经度、海拔高度的增加而递减,递减率分别为55.4 mm/°N、45.2 mm/°E、88.8 mm/(100 m)。1961—2017年,黑龙江省年蒸发量呈显著下降趋势,降幅达13.7 mm/(10 a),存在8 a和24 a周期,全省下降趋势站点比例达70.0%,其中62.5%站点的下降趋势通过0.05的显著性水平检验,远超上升站点比例,总体存在“蒸发悖论”。季节间对照发现,春季蒸发量降幅较大且趋势极显著,存在24 a、准2 a 周期,有67个站点表现为下降趋势,其中44个站呈显著下降趋势(P<0.05);夏季、秋季的降幅较小且变化不显著,均存在7 a周期;冬季则表现为小幅不显著的增加趋势,存在24、11、2 a周期,有23站冬季蒸发量呈显著上升趋势。突变检验发现,年、春季、冬季蒸发量存在明显的突变时间,夏季和冬季则无明显突变。年、季节蒸发量与平均温度、风速存在正相关关系,与相对湿度存在负相关关系。风速显著下降是导致年蒸发量显著减少的主导因素,风速显著下降及增湿明显的叠加作用,致使春季蒸发量的下降趋势更显著,而气候的暖干化使得冬季蒸发量呈较弱的上升趋势。
Abstract:In this study, instrument measured evaporation and conventional meteorological observations from 80 stations in Heilongjiang Province from 1961 to 2017 were collected. Using these data, methods such as linear trend estimation, cumulative anomaly, Mann Kendal mutation analysis, mathematical statistics and Marr’s wavelet analysis were employed to analyze the annual and seasonal characteristics of the spatio temporal evolution of instrument measured evaporation in Heilongjiang Province. Additionally, the relationships of the characteristics with climate factors were analyzed. The results show that the geographical correlation of annual evaporation is significant. Annual evaporation decreases as latitude, longitude and altitude increased. The decreasing rates are 55.4 mm/°N, 45.2 mm/°E and 88.8 mm/(100 m), respectively. From 1961 to 2017, annual evaporation in Heilongjiang Province showed a significant downward trend, decreasing at 13.7 mm/(10 a). Annual evaporation had 8 a and 24 a cycles. Statistics show that at up to 70.0% of the stations, the annual pan evaporation show a downward trend, of which 62.5% of the stations have passed the significance test at 0.05 level, which means there is “evaporation paradox” in Heilongjiang Province. Exploring seasonal pan evaporation trend shows that evaporation decreased significantly in spring, having 24 a and quasi 2 a cycles, and 67 stations show a downward trend, 44 of which show a significant downward trend (P<0.05). However, the magnitude of this decrease in summer and fall is relatively small with non significant changes, with 7 a cycles. In winter, evaporation increase slightly having 24 a, 11 a, and 2 a cycles and 23 stations show a significant rising trend. Mutation test shows that there is a significant mutation time of evaporation in year, spring and winter, but no significant mutation in summer and autumn. Additionally, it is found that changes in annual and seasonal pan evaporation are positively correlated with average temperature and wind speed, and negatively correlated with humidity. Our analysis indicates that a significant decrease in wind speed is the dominant factor leading to the decrease in evaporation throughout the year, and the superposition effect of a significant decrease in wind speed and obvious humidification makes the decrease trend of spring evaporation more significant. The higher temperature and lower relative humidity climate may be the cause of the slight increase in evaporation in winter.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金面上项目(31671576、31671575)、国家青年科学基金项目(31801253)和中国气象局东北地区生态气象创新开放实验室开放研究基金重点项目(stqx2019zd02)共同资助
引用文本:
李秀芬,姜丽霞,李险峰,赵放,朱海霞,王萍,宫丽娟,赵慧颖,2021.1961—2017年黑龙江省蒸发量演变特征及其与气候因子的关系[J].气象,47(6):755-766.
LI Xiufen,JIANG Lixia,LI Xianfeng,ZHAO Fang,ZHU Haixia,WANG Ping,GONG Lijuan,ZHAO Huiying,2021.Evolution Characteristics of Evaporation and Its Relationship with Climate Factors in Heilongjiang Province from 1961 to 2017[J].Meteor Mon,47(6):755-766.