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气象:2019,45(8):1052-1064
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一次梅雨锋附近“列车效应”致灾大暴雨过程观测分析
苟阿宁,王玉娟,张家国,吴涛,韩芳蓉,冷亮
(武汉中心气象台,武汉 430074; 青海省气象灾害防御技术中心,西宁 810001; 中国气象局武汉暴雨研究所,武汉 430074)
Analysis on Heavy Rainfall Event Caused by “Train Effect” in a Meiyu Front of Hubei Province
GOU Aning,WANG Yujuan,ZHANG Jiaguo,WU Tao,HAN Fangrong,LENG Liang
(Wuhan Central Meteorological Observatory, Wuhan 430074; Qinghai Meteorological Disaster Prevention Technology Center, Xining 810001; Institute of Heavy Rain, CMA, Wuhan 430074)
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投稿时间:2018-05-25    修订日期:2018-12-13
中文摘要: 2016年7月6日在武汉发生了一次造成城市严重内涝的暴雨过程。本文利用多普勒天气雷达、逐小时地面加密观测资料和EC 0.25°×0.25°细网格模式数据,对这次梅雨锋附近极端暴雨的降水特征、中尺度对流系统演变和暴雨成因等进行了细致分析,结果表明:(1)本次大暴雨是在典型梅雨期环流形势下发生的,副热带高压西北侧的高温、高湿区配合江淮切变线稳定少动,暴雨则出现在西南低空急流风速辐合区,925 hPa西南低空气流的进退有利于东北路冷空气南下,这与雨带的落区和维持有密切联系。(2)梅雨锋狭长雨带上的降水量分布呈现不均匀性,强暴雨主要集中在几个中心,降水中心的分布与梅雨锋附近低层风场扰动有关,梅雨锋雨带上产生大暴雨是一个典型的中尺度对流系统(MCS),沿着西南—东北走向的引导气流移动,湖北特殊地形促使“列车效应”进一步加强。(3)列车线主要由江淮切变线或边界层辐合线附近的中尺度系统扰动形成,地面中尺度气旋性辐合及低空西南急流长时间维持,是形成“列车效应”的主要原因。(4)MCS在雷达回波上有三个明显特征,第一个是MCS在雷达回波形态上属于带状对流,由层状云和列车线共同组成,雨带与西南气流走向一致;第二特征是层状云和列车线移动方向几乎一致,MCS移动方向与列车线走向平行,垂直于列车线的分量很小;第三个是对流单体在列车线上游新生、加强,并向下游移动,对流单体的传播方向和列车线方向相反。(5)西南急流向近地面扩展、“牛眼”结构及风随高度顺转等中尺度系统,促使近地面扰动加强,诱发强降水。
Abstract:An urban flooding was caused by heavy rainfall in Wuhan on 6 July 2016. Based on Doppler weather radar of Wuhan and surface automatic station observation, and EC 0.25°×0.25° fine-grid model data, the charactersitics of heavy rainfall, the evolution features of mesoscale convective system (MCS), the environmental condition and radar echo structure of Meiyu front are studied in this paper. The result shows that (1) the heavy rainfall event occurred under the circulation pattern of typical Meiyu period. The high temperature and high humidity areas on the northwest side of the subtropical anticyclone were stable with the Jianghuai shear line, and the heavy rainfall appeared in the convergence zone of the southwest low-level jet. (2) The train line was mainly composed of the mesoscale system near the Jianghuai shear line or boundary convergence line. The mesoscale cyclonic convergence and low-level southwest jet maintained a long time, which is the main reason for the formation of the “train effect”. (3) Heavy rainfall was a typical MCS, which moved along the southwest-northeast direction, and the special topography of Hubei reinforced the “train effect”. (4) The MCS has three distinct characteristics in radar echo. The first one is MCS in the radar echo pattern belongs to the band composed of stratiform and convective rain train line, consistent with the trend of the southwest airflow. The second is MCS moved in the direction of stratiform cloud and train lines were almost the same. MCS’s direction was parallel to the train line, and the component perpendicular to the train line is quite small. The third is the convective cells were newly born and strengthened in the upstream on the train line, moving downstream. The convective propagation direction and train line were in the opposite direction. (5) The southwest jet near the ground and bulls eyes intensified the precipitation.
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基金项目:湖北省气象局面上项目(2016Y02)、湖北省雷电灾害防御科研专项(FL-Z-201401)和湖北电网洪涝灾害特殊区域分布图绘制项目(SGTYHT/16-YJ-179)共同资助
引用文本:
苟阿宁,王玉娟,张家国,吴涛,韩芳蓉,冷亮,2019.一次梅雨锋附近“列车效应”致灾大暴雨过程观测分析[J].气象,45(8):1052-1064.
GOU Aning,WANG Yujuan,ZHANG Jiaguo,WU Tao,HAN Fangrong,LENG Liang,2019.Analysis on Heavy Rainfall Event Caused by “Train Effect” in a Meiyu Front of Hubei Province[J].Meteor Mon,45(8):1052-1064.