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气象:2018,44(11):1471-1478
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北京地区大气湿度变化及城市化影响分析
郑祚芳,任国玉
(中国气象局北京城市气象研究所,北京 100089; 国家气候中心,中国气象局气候研究开放实验室,北京 100081; 中国地质大学环境学院大气科学系,武汉 430074)
Analysis on Atmospheric Humidity Change and Its Response to Urbanization in Beijing Area
ZHENG Zuofang,REN Guoyu
(Institute of Urban Meteorology, CMA, Beijing 100089; Laboratory for Climate Studies, National Climate Centre, CMA, Beijing 100081; Department of Atmospheric Science, School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074)
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投稿时间:2017-06-14    修订日期:2018-02-28
中文摘要: 应用北京20 个常规气象站1976—2015年逐日观测及同期北京城市发展数据,并借鉴一个新的城、郊区代表站点分类方法,分析了北京地区相对湿度的分布、变化特征及其对城市化的响应。结果表明:(1)北京地区相对湿度的空间分布不均匀,城市化发展早期相对湿度的分布主要受地形影响,城市化程度较高的年代城市效应的影响更为明显;(2)近40年来北京地区平均相对湿度呈现下降趋势,线性倾向率为-0.9%·(10 a)-1。城区相对湿度的下降速率比郊区大,城、郊差异主要表现在20世纪90年代以后;(3)近40年来北京城市干岛强度呈上升趋势,线性倾向率为1.3%·(10 a)-1,城市干岛效应在季节分布上以冬季为最强,秋、春季次之,夏季较弱。检验表明自1995年以来北京干岛效应呈现出更为明显的增强趋势;(4)北京城市干岛效应与城市化进程有密切联系,其与北京城市化率及城市热岛强度之间具有显著的高相关性,相关系数分别高达0.87和0.86。
Abstract:Based on the daily observations of Beijings 20 conventional meteorological stations from 1976 to 2015 and the urban development data of Beijing in the same period, the distribution and variation characteristics of relative humidity in Beijing and its response to urbanization are analyzed by using a new classification method of representative stations in urban and suburban areas. The results show that the spatial distribution of relative humidity in Beijing is uneven, in which the spatial distribution of relative humidity is mainly affected by topography in the early stage of urbanization and by urbanization in the stage of higher urbanization. In recent 40 years, the average relative humidity in Beijing presents a downward trend with a linear tendency rate of -0.9%·10 a-1, and the decline rate of urban relative humidity is larger than that of suburbs especially after 1990s. Moreover, the intensity of urban dry islands in Beijing shows an upward trend in the past 40 years, with a linear tendency rate of 1.3%·10 a-1. The urban dry island effect is the strongest in winter, followed by autumn and spring, and weaker in summer. Note that the dry island effect of Beijing has shown a more obvious trend of enhancement since 1995. Additionally, the urban dry island effect of Beijing is closely related to the urbanization process, and has a significant high correlation with the urbanization rate and the intensity of urban heat island, with the correlation coefficients as high as 0.87 and 0.86 respectively.
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFC1502104)、国家自然科学基金项目(41575010)和北京市自然科学基金重点项目(8171002)共同资助
引用文本:
郑祚芳,任国玉,2018.北京地区大气湿度变化及城市化影响分析[J].气象,44(11):1471-1478.
ZHENG Zuofang,REN Guoyu,2018.Analysis on Atmospheric Humidity Change and Its Response to Urbanization in Beijing Area[J].Meteor Mon,44(11):1471-1478.