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气象:2018,44(5):597-611
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基于CloudSat卫星分析西太平洋台风云系的垂直结构及其微物理特征
高洋,方翔
(国家卫星气象中心,北京 100081)
Analyses on Vertical Structure and Microphysical Features of Typhoon Cloud in Western Pacific Based on CloudSat Satellite Data
GAO Yang,FANG Xiang
(National Satellite Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2017-07-07    修订日期:2017-10-11
中文摘要: 基于2012—2014年CloudSat卫星数据,按照热带气旋强度分类的6个等级以及沿台风中心的径向距离,分析西太平洋台风云系的垂直结构及其微物理特征。研究表明:(1)不同强度的台风云系中均是单层云占主导,多层云中双层云出现比例最高;随着台风强度的增强,距离台风中心250 km之内,单层云分布位置更加集中且垂直厚度较厚,而450 km之外的单层云一直集中在7~15 km,厚度较薄;随着台风强度的增强,距离台风中心250 km之内的双层云中的底层云和顶层云均增厚且分布位置更加趋于集中,云间距变窄,而450 km之外顶层云和底层云较薄,云间距一直较大。(2)台风云系中,深对流云、高层云、卷云与其他云类型相比,分布的垂直范围较广,出现频率较高,分布的位置会随着台风强度变化和沿台风中心径向距离的增加有明显的变化。(3)随着台风强度的增强,近台风中心5 km以上的回波有明显增强,除此高值区外,发展较为成熟的台风,距台风中心450 km之外也会出现多个明显的柱状回波高值区。(4)近台风中心液水含量的值和冰水含量的值随强度变化均有明显增加,但外围云系中也有分散的冰水含量高值中心但分布高度相对较低,在10 km附近;液水粒子数浓度的高值区域与液水含量的高值区非常对应,而冰水含量的高值区位于冰粒子数浓度的高值区下方,表明小的冰粒子被较强的对流活动带到了高处,而大的冰粒子集中在云系较低处。
Abstract:In this paper, observations from CloudSat satellite dataset from 2012 to 2014 are used to analyze the vertical structure and microphysical features of typhoon cloud in western Pacific with the six kinds of intensities and radial distances from the center. The main conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) The occurrence frequency of single layer cloud dominates and double layer cloud is relatively more common in the multilayer cloud. With the increasing intensity of typhoon, the single layer cloud is thicker inside the radial distance 250 km, but thinner and mostly concentrated in the range of 7-15 km out of the radial distance 450 km. Similarly, the bottom and top layer clouds of double layer are thicker, the distance between them is narrow inside the 250 km range, and the feature out of the 450 km range is inversed. (2) The occurrence frequencies of deep convective clouds, cirrus, and altostratus are higher, compared to other clouds, the distributions have obvious changes with the changes of typhoon intensities and the radial distance. (3) The radar reflectivity becomes stronger above the 5 km in the stage of mature typhoon. Meanwhile, there are obvious columnar radar reflectivity areas out of 450 km. (4) The liquid water and ice water contents near the center of typhoon are increased with the change of typhoon intensities. In addition, the high value area of ice water content is always concentrated near 10 km in the outer cloud bands. The distribution of liquid droplet number concentration is consistent with the liquid water content. However, the high value area of ice water content is below the high area of ice droplet number concentration.
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基金项目:公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY2013060171)资助
引用文本:
高洋,方翔,2018.基于CloudSat卫星分析西太平洋台风云系的垂直结构及其微物理特征[J].气象,44(5):597-611.
GAO Yang,FANG Xiang,2018.Analyses on Vertical Structure and Microphysical Features of Typhoon Cloud in Western Pacific Based on CloudSat Satellite Data[J].Meteor Mon,44(5):597-611.