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气象:2016,42(5):607-613
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北京地区夏季降水与气温的对应关系
A Study on Relationship Between Summer Precipitation and Air Temperature in Beijing Area
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投稿时间:2014-12-23    修订日期:2015-11-04
中文摘要: 随着全球气候的持续变暖,各种高影响天气气候事件的发生频率和强度均有明显增强。由于大气热力条件与降水的变化有着密切的联系,开展降水与气温对应关系的研究具有重要的科学意义。本文应用北京地区20个气象站1978—2012年夏季逐日降水及气温资料,分析了不同量级降水与气温的对应关系及城、郊区间的差异。结果表明:(1) 北京地区降水量随气温的升高有一个先升后降的过程。中雨及以上量级的降水,当气温达到临界值后雨量保持平稳,随气温变化不明显。而当气温进一步上升到一定程度后,降水量开始随气温升高而迅速减弱。越是强度大的降水,其在达到峰值前随气温的增速越接近Clausius Clapeyron变率。(2) 降水频率、强度随气温变化的临界值各不相同。当气温超过临界值后,降水频率及强度均开始减弱。(3) 城、郊区间不同量级的降水随气温具有相似的变化趋势,但到达临界值前城区降水随气温的增速比郊区更大,表明城区降水对气温的敏感性比郊区更强。鉴于城市化对区域气候的主要影响是导致热岛效应的增强,这将有助于我们从另一个角度探讨城市化效应对降水的影响机制。
Abstract:Based on the observation data of daily precipitation and air temperature of 20 weather stations in Beijing Area from 1978 to 2012, the empirical relationship between precipitation and air temperature and the differences between urban and suburban areas in summer (June to August) were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) Daily precipitation presented a first increasing then decreasing trend with air temperature rising. For moderate and heavy rainfalls, precipitation kept stable and varied weakly with air temperature increasing after air temperature reached a threshold. While the air temperature rose further to a certain threshold value, precipitation decreased rapidly with air temperature rising. Before it reached the maximum value, the heavier the precipitation was, the closer the precipitation increase rate was to Clausius Clapeyron (CC) variability. (2) The critical values of precipitation frequency and intensity varying separately with air temperature variation were not the same. When air temperature was higher than the threshold, precipitation frequency and intensity also began to weak. The different magnitudes of precipitation varying with the air temperature had similar trends between the urban and suburban areas. However, precipitation increase rate before precipitation reached the maximum value was bigger in urban area than in the suburb, which indicated that precipitation in urban areas was more sensitive to temperature than that in suburbs.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41575010和41175015)、中国科学院战略性先导专项(XDA05090202)共同资助
引用文本:
郑祚芳,2016.北京地区夏季降水与气温的对应关系[J].气象,42(5):607-613.
ZHENG Zuofang,2016.A Study on Relationship Between Summer Precipitation and Air Temperature in Beijing Area[J].Meteor Mon,42(5):607-613.