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气象:2015,41(10):1268-1277
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全国自动气象站实时观测资料三级质量控制系统研制
(1.国家气象信息中心,北京 100081;2.江西省气象信息中心,南昌 330046;3.广西区气象信息中心,南宁 530022;4.湖北省气象信息与技术保障中心,武汉 430074)
Development of Three Step Quality Control System of Real Time Observation Data from AWS in China
(1.National Meteorological Information Centre, Beijing 100081;2.Jiangxi Meteorological Information Centre, Nanchang 330046;3.Guangxi Meteorological Information Centre, Nanning 530022;4.Hubei Meteorological Information and Technical Support Centre, Wuhan 430074)
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投稿时间:2014-08-26    修订日期:2015-07-08
中文摘要: 迄今,中国气象局已在全国建立了55000余个地面自动气象站(含国家级自动站和区域自动站)。为了促进众多台站观测资料质量提高,在实时业务中保障用户用到基本正确有效的数据,2009年底中国气象局启动了“全国自动站实时资料质量控制与综合评估系统建设”工程,旨在研制一套基本适用于全国自动站实时观测数据的质量控制技术方法,建立台站、省级、国家级资料部门的地面自动站实时资料三级质量控制与反馈业务系统。在探究自动站错误数据表现形式的基础上,研制了自动站实时观测数据质量控制技术;从业务分工与应用角度,设计建立了台站负责质量监控、省级负责质量控制和国家级主要负责质量评估的自动站实时资料三级质量控制系统。该系统已在2400多个国家级气象台站、31个省级和国家级资料部门安装部署与业务应用。通过系统建设与应用,实时上传的自动站数据质量得到明显改善。主汛期全国自动站逐小时气温、降水数据可用率分别从2009年的88%、83%提升到2012、2013年的98%左右。
Abstract:China Meteorological Administration (CMA) commenced building surface automatic weather station (AWS) around 2000. More than 2400 national AWSs have been built to observe precipitation, air temperature, wind direction, wind speed, air pressure, air humidity and soil temperature, etc. Moreover, more than 55000 regional AWSs that are mainly applied to disaster prevention and reduction have been also set up to monitor precipitation, air temperature, wind direction, wind speed, air pressure or humidity. The data quality of the above large number of AWSs could not reach very correct degree. So, at the end of 2009 CMA launched a project named Construction of Quality Control and Comprehensive Evaluation System for Real time Observation Data of AWS. (1) After analyzing various performance ways and causes of the erroneous meteorological data from AWS, the quality control technique was developed for real time observed and transmitted hourly data of precipitation, air temperature, wind direction, wind speed, air pressure and air humidity. The quality control method includes climatic range check, internal consistency check, temporal consistency check, spatial consistency check, man computer interaction control, etc. Each kind of inspection process contains a number of control modes. (2) Based on the operational process of AWS observation data acquisition, transmission, collection, decode and real time service, three step quality control system of AWS real time observation data was developed. In the system, the national level system is mainly responsible for data quality evaluation, the provincial one including 31 provincial data management departments is in charge of data quality control, and more than 2400 national stations are responsible for data quality monitoring and erroneous data correction. The three step quality control system operates based on national and provincial real time databases, organized mainly by one real time quality control software, man compute interaction quality monitoring platform, data quality evaluation platform, nation province station three step quality automatic feedback process for suspect data information. (3) The three step quality control system of AWS real time observation data has been installed and operational applied at more than 2400 national AWSs, 31 provincial meteorological information departments and one national meteorological information center. Quality control, quality monitoring, quality feedback and quality evaluation are operated for meteorological data of real time observation and transmission from above national and regional AWSs. The quality of all AWS observation data is greatly improved year by year. For example, data availability of hourly air temperature and precipitation real time observed by above AWSs in main flood season increases from 88%, 83% respectively in 2009 to about 98% in 2012 and 2013.
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基金项目:公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201106038)和中国气象局业务建设项目“全国自动站实时资料质量控制与综合评估系统建设”共同资助
引用文本:
任芝花,张志富,孙超,刘一鸣,李俊,鞠晓慧,赵煜飞,李志鹏,张玮,李洪康,曾行吉,任晓炜,刘莹,王海军,2015.全国自动气象站实时观测资料三级质量控制系统研制[J].气象,41(10):1268-1277.
REN Zhihua,ZHANG Zhifu,SUN Chao,LIU Yiming,LI Jun,JU Xiaohui,ZHAO Yufei,LI Zhipeng,ZHANG Wei,LI Hongkang,ZENG Xingji,REN Xiaowei,LIU Ying,WANG Haijun,2015.Development of Three Step Quality Control System of Real Time Observation Data from AWS in China[J].Meteor Mon,41(10):1268-1277.