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气象:2014,40(3):269-279
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基于CALIPSO资料的沙尘暴过程沙尘垂直结构特征分析
(1 内蒙古自治区气象台,呼和浩特 010051;2 北京大学物理学院大气科学系,北京 100871)
Analysis on Characteristics of Vertical Structure of Sand and Dust During Dust Storm Process Based on CALIPSO Data
(1 Inner Mongolia Autonomous Regional Meteorological Observatory, Hohhot 010051;2 Department of Atmospheric Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871)
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投稿时间:2013-02-17    修订日期:2013-09-29
中文摘要: 综合利用CALIPSO星载激光雷达探测资料和MM5数值模拟结果,对2010年3月19—22日强沙尘暴过程不同阶段沙尘垂直分布特征及其动力、热力结构进行了初步分析,结果发现:在沙尘暴成熟阶段,沙尘层分布于2~9 km(850~250 hPa)的几乎整个对流层中,冷锋前抬升和锋后下沉导致的旺盛垂直混合使沙尘呈现相对均匀的垂直分布。在沙尘扩展及远距离传输阶段,沙尘层明显分为两层,分别位于对流层低层(700 hPa以下)和对流层中高层(600~300 hPa)。在沙尘暴各个阶段,弱风速垂直切变和弱位温、相当位温垂直变化始终与沙尘层配合,显示沙尘层维持中性混合层,而两个沙尘层之间则为强风速垂直切变及位温、相当位温锋区。另外,沙尘暴发展过程中,高空急流、位涡、比湿等要素均表明出明显的对流顶折叠和高空位涡下传,且在对流顶较高的区域,沙尘向上的扩展也较高,反之则较低。需要指出,在沙尘暴扩展和远距离传输阶段,在40°N附近,7~9 km沿纬向一线,均出现一小范围孤立沙尘区位于平流层中(或平流层附近),表明沙尘暴过程中能够产生沙尘的对流层—平流层输送,并在平流层中形成持续性的沙尘传输带。这可以成为沙尘气溶胶对流层—平流层输送及其在平流层中传输的一个直接的监测证据。
Abstract:By using CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations) data and MM5 numerical simulation output data, the characteristics of vertical structure of dusty layers and its accompanying dynamic and thermal structure in a severe dust storm which occurred in North China from 19 to 22 March 2010 were studied. The results show that in the mature period of dust storm, the dusty layer distributes almost in the whole troposphere from 2 to 9 km. The vertical mixture caused by the cold frontal uplifting and the sinking after the front induces an uniform distribution of dust particles. After that, during the long distance transportation period of dust, the dusty layer is separated to two layers clearly, located at the lower troposphere (below 700 hPa) and the middle upper troposphere (from 600 to 300 hPa) respectively. In each stage of the dust storm process, the weak vertical change of wind speed, potential and equivalent potential temperature are closely coordinated with the dusty layers, which indicates that the neutral mixed layer maintains in the dusty layer. Between the two dusty layers, the frontal region of potential and equivalent potential temperature appear. Meanwhile, the evident tropopause fold and obvious declining of large potential vorticity appear. According to it, when the tropopause sustains at a higher altitude, the dusty layers are expanded to a higher altitude as well. Otherwise, the dusty layers are lower. It should be noted that in the dust long distance transportation stage, a banding area located at 40°N from 7 km to 9 km appears in the stratosphere, indicating that in this dust storm process, parts of the dust particles are transported from troposphere to stratosphere. And it also forms a perisistent dust transportation belt in the stratosphere, so it can be regarded as an observational evidence to prove the troposphere stratosphere transportation of dust aerosol and the transmission of dust aerosol in stratosphere.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41365003和40965005)共同资助
引用文本:
姜学恭,陈受钧,云静波,2014.基于CALIPSO资料的沙尘暴过程沙尘垂直结构特征分析[J].气象,40(3):269-279.
JIANG Xuegong,CHEN Shoujun,YUN Jingbo,2014.Analysis on Characteristics of Vertical Structure of Sand and Dust During Dust Storm Process Based on CALIPSO Data[J].Meteor Mon,40(3):269-279.