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气象:2010,36(7):16-20
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回顾中央气象台天气预报业务的发展(1950—1980年)
(中国气象局, 北京 100081)
Review of Development of Operational Weather Forecasting and Its Service in the Central Meteorological Office from 1950 to 1980
(China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2009-12-03    修订日期:2010-01-22
中文摘要: 简要回顾和记叙中央气象台自1950年成立至1980年的30年中,在天气预报业务和服务方面的发展过程。大体可分为三个阶段:第一阶段是20世纪50年代,当初既缺乏资料,也缺乏人才。经过第一个五年计划大力兴建气象台站,资料问题得以基本解决;经与中国科学院地球物理所合作成立联合天气分析预报中心,人才培养和业务建设都有较快进展。到20世纪50年代后期中央气象台的业务范围和水平与发达国家已相差不大,这一阶段是这30年中发展最快、最好的阶段。第二阶段是20世纪50年代末期至70年代初期。由于外部环境干扰,使天气预报业务停滞不前,所幸业务和服务工作并未中断。这一阶段中央气象台的业务水平与发达国家间的差距明显加大。20世纪70年代初,我国恢复了在世界气象组织的合法席位,经政府批准和世界气象组织的同意,中央气象台为成为世界天气监视网(WWW)中的区域气象中心和区域气象通信枢纽而进行积极准备。到70年代末,在装备的选购、人员培养、数值预报模式的选用、通信线路的双边谈判以及软件的开发等方面均已准备就绪。中央气象台也正式更名为北京区域气象中心,并开始了现代化的业务建设。
Abstract:This paper reviewed briefly the development of operational weather forecast and service in the Central Meteorological Office since its founding in 1950 to the end of 1979. It could be divided into 3 stages. The first stage was from its founding to the late 1950s. The main difficulties in this stage were lack of observation data for constructing synoptic weather maps and lack of qualified forecasters. Thanks to the National First 5 Year Plan, a large amount of surface weather stations and radiosound stations were set up. A joint weather forecasting center was operating during 1950—1955, jointly by the Central Meteorological Office and the Geophysical Research Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences, which promoted the growth of weather forecasters and the development of operational work as well. The second stage was from late 1950s to early 1970s. Disturbed seriously by ‘culture revolution’ and wrong technical policies adopted by Meteorological Service, no significant progress has been made during the stage. Fortunately, the whole works were not paralyzed. However, the technical gaps between China and developed countries in these respects were widen greatly. The third stage was from middle of 1970s to end of 1970s. Having restored its legal seat in WMO 1973, China soon jointed the WWW program of WMO. In the program, China was recommended to be a Regional Meteorological Center and a Regional Telecommunication hub in the WWW frame work. In later years the Central Meteorological Office main works were to do the preparation for this purpose: purchase appropriate equipments including computers; training the technical personnel; software development and bilateral talks between China and other countries to establish telecommunication line, etc. By the end of 1970s, all the preparation has been done, the Central Meteorological Office then changed its title as Regional Meteorological Center and ready for a new development in later years.
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骆继宾,2010.回顾中央气象台天气预报业务的发展(1950—1980年)[J].气象,36(7):16-20.
LUO Jibin,2010.Review of Development of Operational Weather Forecasting and Its Service in the Central Meteorological Office from 1950 to 1980[J].Meteor Mon,36(7):16-20.