ISSN 1000-0526
CN 11-2282/P

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  • 1  Temperature Variation in China during the Last 100 years
    丁一汇 戴晓苏
    1994, 20(12):19-26. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1994.12.008
    [Abstract](1568) [HTML](0) [PDF 295.36 K](1061) [Cited by](419)
    A review of achievements on temperature variation during the last 100 years in China is made. It is found that the general tendency of warming in China is similar to that in the Northern Hemisphere,but with some significant differences in the evolutive process and warming magnitudes. These differences include (1 ) the peak temperature in China occurred in the 40's rather than after the 80's; (2 )since the 50's the cooling was observed in southwest China while the warming mainly occurred in Northeast China, North China and (3) the two sudden changes in temperature variations in China during the last 100 years were observed, with the first one occurred in 1919 and the second one in 1952. The effect of urbanization on the measurements of air temperature and their correction methods are also discussed. The amplitude of the temperature variation in China during the last 100 years does not exceed the range of natural climate fluctuations. Therefore,it is uncertain that the above temperature variation is caused by human activity.
    2  Climatic trend in China for the last 40 years
    林学椿 于淑秋
    1990, 16(10):16-21. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1990.10.003
    [Abstract](941) [HTML](0) [PDF 636.67 K](1051) [Cited by](308)
    In the paper,the annually mean temperature and rainfall at 160 stations in China from 1951 to 1989 are calculated climatically with a linear trend equation.In the period,the annually mean temperature of the whole country were arising at a rate of 0.04℃/10-year.The maximum value of warming occured in North China and Northeast China,but annually mean temperatures in the Changjiang River Valley and Southwest China appeared with a continuous drop. In respect of climatology jthe annual rainfall of the whole country was decreasing, at a rate-of -12.66mm/10-year.Except for some areas in Hubei and Sichuan Provinces,the precipi-tation decreases.The droughtization and desertization caused by rainfall-decreasing have become two vital climatic problems in China.
    3  ENSO Events and Their Intensity during the Past Century
    王绍武 龚道溢
    1999, 25(1):9-14. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1999.1.002
    [Abstract](1207) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.38 M](1489) [Cited by](152)
    o explore the coupling between the atmosphere and the ocean in ENSO events, the combination of 2 SST indices and 2 SOIs which are all beginning from 1880 are used to define the ENSO index. The 2 SSTs are SST of Nino C(i.e. 180°~90°W,0°~5°S, Angell,1981) and SST of Nino 3 (i.e. 160°E~90°W, 5°N~5°S, Cane et al., 1997), 2 SOIs are SOI of Ropelewski and Jones and SOI of Shi and Wang respectively. Then 32 "warm phase" ENSO events and 32 "cold phase" ENSO events in total are identified from spring 1880 through spring 1998. The intensity of each ENSO event was also classified.
    4  Variations of temperature in China for the 100 year.period in comparison with global temperatures
    1990, 16(2):11-15. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1990.2.002
    [Abstract](1138) [HTML](0) [PDF 430.79 K](1044) [Cited by](123)
    The variations of ten year mean annual temperature are examined based oh the temperature grade data set (1910-1988) and stational temperature observation in Haerbin, Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou (1880 -1979) .The temperature variation in China is compared ' with that in the .Northern Hemisphere and over the globe.
    5  A Discussion on Difference between Haze and Fog andWarning of Ash Haze Weather
    2005, 31(4):3-7. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2005.4.001
    [Abstract](1378) [HTML](0) [PDF 425.85 K](1267) [Cited by](101)
    Along with the rapid development of economy and urbanization, atmospheric aerosol pollution is becoming worse. It is becoming a practical matter to distinguish haze and fog, and also an urgent issue need to be solved. In the past the operational standard by using relative humidity to discern fog and haze is commonly on the low side over the southeast coastal provinces. To distinguish fog and haze should be based on the change of influencing weather system combining other influencing factors. According to the new researches on aerosol in the recent years, the main water soluble particles less than 0.1μm diameter in the atmosphere are mainly composed by vitriol ammonium, while large than 1μm diameter are sodium chloride. The relative humidity for those matters is approximately 80%, so it is suggested that the weather phenomena, the visibility deterioration caused by atmospheric turbidness resulting in blur of visual field, is determined as haze when relative humidity is less than 80%, while as fog when relative humidity is large than 90%, and as the mixture of haze and fog the main constitutes are still haze when the relative humidity is between 80% and 90%. It is also suggested that to set down as soon as possible the ash haze index and its warning method, to develop the study on method of predicting and warning ash haze weather and to construct the operational platform, to open up the field of meteorological services, putting the products of environmental meteorology into public service.
    6  Research Progress on Typhoon Heavy Rainfall in China for Last Ten Years
    程正泉 陈联寿 徐祥德 彭涛涌
    2005, 31(12):3-9. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2005.12.001
    [Abstract](1495) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.07 M](1778) [Cited by](88)
    Most of damages of landing typhoon result from heavy rainfall, therefore typhoon heavy rainfall is one of the most focused problems in the typhoon research community. During the last 10 years, with the acquisition of much valuable intensive observations in a series of typhoon field experiments, the improvement of the weather monitoring network, the upgrade of atmospheric numerical models and the rapid development of computer powers, many problems in typhoon heavy rainfall research are further studied, such as the interaction between typhoons and mid-latitude weather systems, the interaction between typhoons and topography and underlying surface, the mesoscales of typhoons and the dynamics and so on. The research progresses in recent 10 years are briefly summarized, and some existing issues are discussed.
    7  The changes of temperature and the effects of the urbanization in China in the last 39 years
    1991, 17(4):14-17. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1991.4.003
    [Abstract](992) [HTML](0) [PDF 364.44 K](920) [Cited by](81)
    The changes of temperature in China in the last 39 years have been studied. It is noticed that the temperature is increased by about 0.23℃ in China in the last 39 years. It is found that the most obvious warming occurs in winter time which is 0.78℃ increment and the secondary warming is a 0.34℃ increment, occuring in spring. But a cooling trend is presented in summer, which shows a -0.27℃ drop. Here the effects of the urbanization in China are also analysed. The annual temperature rising in the bigger cities is much more obviously found than that in the smaller cities in the last 39 years.
    8  Analysis of the Severe Cold Surge, Icesnow and Frozen  Disasters in South China During January 2008:  Ⅱ. Possible Climatic Causes
    Gao Hui Chen Lijuan Jia Xiaolong Ke Zongjian Han Rongqing Zhang Peiqun Wang Qiyi Sun Chenhu Zhu Yanfeng Li Wei Sun Linhai Ren Fumin Wang Ling Gao Ge
    2008, 34(4):101-106. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2008.04.013
    [Abstract](1389) [HTML](457) [PDF 2.90 M](2236) [Cited by](76)
    Extreme low temperature, heavy snowstorm and frost disasters occurred in China i n January of 2008. The disasters are unprecedented owing to their nationalwide influences, their infrequent intensity, and the long lasting periods of the low temperature, snowstorm and frost days. They led to huge losses in the country. In the second part of this paper, the possible climatic causes are analyzed. Res ults show that the La Nina event began in August 2007 and developed very quickly . It led to the anomalous general circulations in the Northern Hemisphere, which was thought to be the most important causes of unprecedented disasters. In Janu ary, the geopotential height over the Ural was abnormally high while the count erpart over the Middle Asia, the Mongolia and the Far East regions of the Russia was low. This pattern is propitious to the cold air activity from the high lati tudes. In that month, the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSTH) located more northward, which favors the transportation of the warm and wet moisture to China along its west and north sides. The position of the WPSTH determined the disast er regions. In addition, the Indian and Burma trough (IBT) in the south side of the QinghaiXizang Plateau is quite active, which favors the moisture transport ation in another way to China, i.e., along the YunnanGuizhou Plateau from the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal. Results also indicate that the inversion lay er in that month was the strongest in all Januaries since 1951 and its persisten ce was the main causes of the frozen rain in Hu'nan and Guizhou provinces.
    9  More Discussions on the differences between Haze and Fog in City
    2006, 32(4):9-15. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.4.002
    [Abstract](1414) [HTML](669) [PDF 506.61 K](1652) [Cited by](75)
    The appearance of haze has importance indication meaning to air quality, while the fog or light fog has specific weather indication relating to particular weather system. With the rapid development of economic scale and urbanization, the phenomena of haze or haze weather have become increasingly serious. The standard criterion by using relative humidity to distinguish haze or fog in many northeast coastal provinces is generally on the low side, leading to much haze weather recorded as light fog or fog. In the near surface atmosphere there always exists haze, while fog drop hardly exists. Only under the enough supersaturation which is higher than that the maximum of supersaturation can the haze nuclei become fog drop through moisture absorption growing, such a process is not easy to happen. Under non-saturation conditions, not only the insoluble haze nuclei are impossible to transform into fog drop, but also the soluble ones are commonly impossible. The observational data show that the extreme relative humidity is 91% when fog occurred, there is no fog when the relative humidity is lower than 90%. The most important physical process to form fog drop is by falling the temperature to the saturation point. It is hardly impossible to form fog drop through the natural moisture absorption growing of haze nuclei. The distinguishing of fog or haze should be made according to the change of weather system combining with the macro-characteristics. It is rational by using the threshold value of relative humidity 90% as an assistant criterion to distinguish fog or haze.
    10  The Relationship Between the Summer Rain Belt in China and the East Asia Monsoon
    赵汉光 张先恭
    1996, 22(4):8-12. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1996.4.002
    [Abstract](852) [HTML](0) [PDF 3.89 M](1088) [Cited by](71)
    Based on the monthly mean sea level pressure data during the years of 1951-1994,the East Asia summer monsoon intensity index has been suggested. The statistical results show that the variation of summer rain belt pattern relates closely to the strength of summer monsoon in the East Asia. It was found that when the strong monsoon years,the positive anomaly of precipitation would appear in the north China (Pattern Ⅰ rain belt),when the week monsoon years,the summer rain belt would appear in the south China (Pattern Ⅲ rain belt) ;when the normal monsoon years,the summer rain belt would appear in central China (Pattern Ⅱ rain belt). The onset time of summer monsoon in the East Asia is one of the factors affecting the strength of summer monsoon. The stronger summer monsoon is predominant when the summer monsoon established early in East Asia ion the contrary,the weaker summer monsoon is predominant. These results would be useful for the long range forecasting of rainfall anomaly pattern.
    11  An Expression of the Wet Q Vector and Application
    1998, 24(8):3-7. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1998.8.001
    [Abstract](887) [HTML](0) [PDF 296.83 K](1082) [Cited by](67)
    Taking acount of the latent heat of the vapour condensation in the atmosphere,the concept of the wet Q vector was proposed. An expression of the wet Q vector and the non geostrophic ω equation,in which the divergence of wet Q vector was taken as a forcing term,was derived. By using routine meteorological data for diagnostric analysis,the results show that the wet Q vector is better than the quasi geostrophic Q vector in the low latitude area.
    12  General Atmospheric Circulation Anomaly in 1998and Their Impact on Climate Anomaly in China
    1999, 25(4):20-25. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.1999.4.004
    [Abstract](1069) [HTML](0) [PDF 514.17 K](1296) [Cited by](56)
    Because of influence of the ENSO and more snow cover over Tibetan Plateau in winter and spring on general circulation over the Northern Hemisphere in 1998,the dominant anomaly has been charaterized by the subtropical high over the west Pacific and it is very stronger,and at the same time moves southward in summer.Monsoon over China Sea is weaker and begins later one week than normal.ITCZ over the west Pacific is also weaker than normal so that outgrowth and landing typhoon and tropical storms are so less than normal.At 500hPa,zonal circulation is dominant in the middle latitude of Asia in spring,autumn and winter,but the meridinal circulation is strengthened in summer.These may be the main reasons that influence climate anomaly in China in 1998.
    13  Progress of Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) Model and Application in the United States
    2004, 30(12):27-31. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2004.12.006
    [Abstract](1572) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.39 M](1909) [Cited by](56)
    WRF model system is a new generation mesoscal numerical weather forecast model and data assimilation system which is made by meteorological community of U.S.A. 3DAR and WRF V.20 will be released this year. There are highly modular,transportable,and efficient in massively Parallel Computing environment,numerous physics options in the model,advanced data assimilation system developed in tandem with the model itself. The simulations and real-time forecasting show that WFR model has good property for forecasting many kind of weather. The WRF model fully coupled “online" chemistry,therefore WRF model system has broad application not only in weather forecasts,but also in air quality forecasts.
    14  Climatic Characteristics of Haze in Guangzhou
    刘爱君 杜尧东 王惠英
    2004, 30(12):68-71. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2004.12.016
    [Abstract](1340) [HTML](0) [PDF 1.87 M](1222) [Cited by](56)
    According to the observation of Guangzhou Meteorological Observatory from 1961 to 2002,climatic characteristics and forming cause of haze in Guangzhou are analyzed. The results showed that in Guangzhou haze days was maximum in December and minimum in June,the haze days in autumn and winter accounted for more than 70 percent of annual total haze days. In general,annual haze days represented the increasing trend. The change of annual haze days could be divided into five stages,among which haze days from late 1970's to middle 1980's and from late 1980's to middle and late 1990's were increasing rapidly. Inter-annual change of haze days was associated with pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere,whereas monthly and seasonal distribution of haze days tended to be controlled by synoptic situation and weather conditions. Haze could decrease global solar radiation and reduce sunshine duration.
    15  Investigation of Beijing Extreme Flooding Event on 21 July 2012
    YU Xiaoding
    2012, 38(11):1313-1329. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2012.11.001
    [Abstract](4511) [HTML](5655) [PDF 6.03 M](11806) [Cited by](55)
    On 21 July 2012 Beijing experienced the most severe rainfall event since August 1963. The extreme rainfall induced flooding killed over 100 people and the property damage is over 11.64 billion RMB yuan (about 2 billion U.S. dollars). Based on the routine upper level and surface observation, the satellite and radar data, a detailed analysis and investigation have been done on this event. The major results are as following: (1) The upper level trough accompanied by surface cold front moving toward east blocked by the subtropical high provides favorable synoptic scale conditions for torrential rain event in Beijing area. (2) The presence of a tropical cyclone over the South China Sea near the coastline led to the establishment and enhancement of southeastward and southward low level jet toward Beijing area, providing plenty of water vapor to Beijing area. (3) The development of Hetao vertex on 20 July led to the formation of a meso α scale MCS over that area, and its high value of vertical helicity made it well organized and longlived. This MCS moved with the upper level trough eastward, and was over Huabei region (including Beijing area) on the second day (21 July), producing extreme rainfall over Beijing area. (4) The south east low level jet constantly triggered new convective cells on the east slope of the Taihang Mountain Range, then moved to northeast direction into Beijing area, leading to the torrential rainfall and severe flooding there.
    16  Studies on Climate in Liaoning Province in Recent 48 Years
    赵春雨 刘勤明 李晶
    2000, 26(5):32-35. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2000.5.008
    [Abstract](753) [HTML](0) [PDF 222.60 K](1002) [Cited by](51)
    Based on the data of monthly mean air temperature,precipitation,maximum and minimum air temperature from 25 stations in 1951-1998,the climate change and its characteristics in Liaoning Province in recent 48 years and in recent 10 years were analyzed and studied comprehensively.
    17  Calculating Method of Area Rainfall over Seven River Valleys and Its Application
    徐晶 林建 姚学祥 毕宝贵 吴昊
    2001, 27(11):13-16. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2001.11.003
    [Abstract](1351) [HTML](0) [PDF 387.44 K](1147) [Cited by](50)
    Referring to the methods of hydrological sections and meteorological observatories all over the country,the boundaries of seven great river valleys (including Changjiang River,Yellow River,Songhuajiang River,Liaohe River,Haihe River,Huaihe River and Zhujiang River) and their sub-valleys are objectively determined.The whole country is divided into 71 sub-valleys and computer automatically selects the representative stations of each sub valley.Having studied the advantages of all kinds of methods calculating area rainfall,Taisen Polygon Method as the main method is chosen to calculate area rainfall.The tryout of area rainfall forecast was made in the Central Meteorological Obervatory (CMO) during the period from June to September 2000.On the basis of timely incorporating 24 hour conventional rainfall data and intensive rainfall data as the real time data every day and converting 24 hour and 48 hour short term rainfall forecast guiding products offered by the CMO into station rainfall,real time and forecast area rainfall of each sub-valley are calculated.And at the same time,displaying real time and forecast area rainfall under the MICAPS system is realized.
    18  Impact of Surface Synoptic Situations on Air Pollution in Beijing Area
    孟燕军 程丛兰
    2002, 28(4):42-47. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2002.4.010
    [Abstract](917) [HTML](0) [PDF 478.62 K](1022) [Cited by](50)
    The surface synoptic situations which affect the air pollution in Beijing area are classified. Using the data of surface observation and upper air sounding from 1998 to 2000 in the southern suburbs of Beijing, the meteorological features of the surface and lower layer in Beijing area that is controlled by the various surface synoptic situations are analyzed. It is found that air pollutants are easily confluent and accumulated when the weather in Beijing is controlled by the low-pressure type at surface. Comparing the influences of the various surface synoptic situations on sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, PM10, carbon monoxide, respectively, it is shown that the influence of the same surface synoptic situation on various air pollutants is different,It further approves that the low-pressure weather would easily cause the severe pollution in Beijing.
    19  Study on Urban Heat Island Effect in Pearl River Delta Urban Group
    曾侠 钱光明 潘蔚娟
    2004, 30(10):12-15. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2004.10.003
    [Abstract](931) [HTML](0) [PDF 2.50 M](1096) [Cited by](49)
    Obvious urban heat island effect has been developed at the Pearl River Delta urban group for the last ten years. The annual urban heat island intensity rose from 0.1℃(1983) to 0.5℃(1993). The urban heat island intensity of the Pearl River Delta urban group has obvious monthly difference and daily difference,it is the strongest in November,but the weakest in April. The urban heat island intensity during the nighttime is stronger than that during the daytime for annual-average. For spatial distribution,the intensity in the center part is stronger than that in the ambient part,which closely correlated with economical activity.

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