This paper introduces the construction of the Urban Surface High-resolution and Fast Wind Field (USHFWF) model, which uses the mesoscale model simulation as the background field and 5 m resolution building data as the model input data. The USHFWF model is developed through block processing, spatial interpolation based on partition function and mass conservation constraint, in order to achieve the near-surface wind field with a high resolution (horizontal resolution of 10 m×10 m grid) covering city scale over a short period of time (about 2-3 h). Based on this model, wind field with 10 m resolution in downtown of Beijing (i.e. within Fourth Ring Road, 20 km×19 km) is simulated and validated at 8 typical times. The main results are as follows: (1) In terms of wind speed, the simulation is usually larger than the observed values. The accuracy rates of the four times in summer and winter are more than 90% and 60%, respectively. In terms of wind direction, the accuracy rate of the eight times is all more than 40%. (2) The high-resolution wind field simulated by USHFWF model reflects the diurnal variation characteristics of wind in the central part of Beijing. Obviously, the area with large wind speed usually corresponds to the underlying surface with less roughness, and the area with small wind speed and disturbed flow usually corresponds to the underlying surface with high-density or high-rise buildings. (3) The USHFWF model can also show fine scale characteristics of the key block’s wind field. Take a block near the East Second Ring Road as an example. The simulated wind field can clearly reflect the flow due to the distribution of buildings, such as diffluence, confluence, local circulation, and wake flow. In summary, USHFWF model provides an effective way to obtain high-resolution near surface wind field covering urban scale in a short time. It is helpful to identify the key areas that need to be improved or restricted to development, and to facilitate the rational construction and implementation of the urban ventilation corridors, so as to achieve the ultimate goal of optimizing the internal ventilation performance, alleviate the urban heat island effect and improve the wind-environment comfort.