Based on the revised national standard of grades of meteorological drought, daily meteorological drought composite index (MCI) from 825 stations in China from 1961 to 2015 are calculated with historic daily rainfall, mean air temperature, maximum air temperature, minimum air temperature and wind speed. Spatiotemporal distribution and changes of drought days over China and six regions such as Northeast China, North China, eastern Northwest China, Southwest China, middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, South China are analyzed using the calculated daily MCI. Drought disaster rate of each province and changes of affected areas and damaged areas in China are also analyzed with disaster data from 1961 to 2015. The results show that annual drought days in North China, Huanghuai, eastern Northwest China, western Northeast China, western South China, most parts of Southwest China and Inner Mongolia are more than 40 days. Especially in most parts of North China, northeastern Huanghuai and northern Shaanxi, most parts of eastern Gansu and Ningxia, annual drought days are more than 60 days. The maximum dry spells in southern Hebei, most parts of Ningxia, northern and western Xinjiang, central and southern Yunnan, southern Hainan are more than 210 days. But in middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, eastern South China, central Northwest China, eastern Northeast China, annual drought days are less than 40 days. The drought mainly occurs in late spring, summer and autumn in Northeast China and North China, in late spring and early summer in eastern Northwest China, in midsummer and autumn in middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, in autumn and winter in South China and in winter and spring in Southwest China. Annual drought days are in an overall increasing trend over China from 1961 to 2015, especially in southeastern Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi, southern Shanxi, western Henan, northwestern Hubei, central and western Guizhou, central and western Yunnan. But in central and western Northwest China, central and eastern Northeast China, most parts of Jiangnan and South China, central and western Tibet and Inner Mongolia, annual drought days have decreasing trend. Annual drought affected areas and damaged areas in China have an overall increasing trend from 1951 to 2015, but they are both decreasing in the recent years.