ISSN 1000-0526
CN 11-2282/P

Volume 33,Issue 2,2007 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Evolution Characteristics of Vapor over Wuhan in Meiyu Period in 2004 and Its Relationship with Heavy Rainfall
    Li Wujie Li Jun Gong Ying Wang Juan
    2007, 33(2):3-9. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.001
    [Abstract](535) [HTML](170) [PDF 1.05 M](811)
    Using Wuhan twice daily radiosounding data from June to July in 2004, the preci -pitable water, specific humidity and relative humidity are calculated. By contras ting and analyzing the characteristics of the vertical distribution and the dail y variation of those vapor parameters, the evolution characteristics of the vapo r over Wuhan in Meiyu period in 2004 and its relationship with heavy rainfall ar e discussed. The result shows that the vapor content in the air over Wuhan decreases with the height and 90 percent of vapor concentrates below 700hPa.The vapor content in July is more than that in June. The specific humidity increase in the whole layer or in the middleand upperlevel can lead to the evident in crease of the whole layer relative humidity over Wuhan, and the increasing degree inc reases with the height. In the course of analyzing and forecasting heavy rain, i t is better to analyze the vapor evolution in the middleand upperlevel than that in the lowlevel. They are all very meaningful indicators for heavy rain f orecast to analyze the total layer vapor evolution combining the total layer mea n relative humidity with precipitable water, and to analyze the middle and upp er level vapor evolution combining average specific humi-dity with relative hu midity of the middle and upper level.
    2  Analysis of a Smallscale Low Level Horizontal Wind Shear Process over Qingdao Airport
    Zhang Yinchang Huang Fei
    2007, 33(2):10-14. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.002
    [Abstract](206) [HTML](206) [PDF 1.06 M](841)
    Smallscale characteristics of a low level horizontal wind shear process occurring in Qingdao Airport on 20 March 2002 are studied . The results show that the smallscale adjustment process between wind field a nd pressure field is produced by the strong wind shear. The largescale backgro und synoptic process is also investigated and it is found that a fastmoving cold front causes the strong low level wind shear process over the Qingdao Airport. Exploring the inducement of strong wind shear and making prediction of wind shear are very important for flight staff and aviation controller.
    3  A Comparative Study on Stepwise Cluster and Fuzzy Cluster in Cloud Classificat ion Techniques
    Zhu Yaping Liu Jianwen Bai Jie
    2007, 33(2):15-21. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.003
    [Abstract](423) [HTML](56) [PDF 587.73 K](753)
    In order to profoundly understand abilities of two classifiers—step wise cluster and fuzzy cluster in the cloud classification techniques, both EOS/ MODIS and GMS5 data set are used, spectral or textural features are drawn from samples randomly to identify various cloud/surface. The results show that the st epwise cluster gives higher accuracies than fuzzy classifier on the whole. With rega rds to discriminating diverse cloud/surfaces, fuzzy cluster demonstrates its hig her accuracies than stepwise cluster on the classes having similar characteristi cs such as stratus, cumulostratus and cumulus; while stepwise cluster has better capabilities of distinguishing cumulonimbus and surfaces. As far as misclassifi cation of cloud/surfaces, fuzzy cluster tends to show lower accuracies in more m isclassified classes.
    4  Causation Analysis of Mesoscale Heavy Rain Triggered by Typhoo n“Longwang”
    Lin Yi Liu Ming Liu Aiming Huang Meijin
    2007, 33(2):22-28. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.004
    [Abstract](847) [HTML](94) [PDF 12.43 M](968)
    Typhoon“Longwang”, which landed on Fujian Province on October 2, 200 5, caused a severe heavy rain over Fuzhou. Based on satellite pictures and Dopp ler Radar data, diagnostic analysis is conducted. The result indicates that the southwest flow in the southeastern part of typhoon is forced to split into two b ranches by the impact of Taiwan's landform after it entered into Taiwan Strait. The two branches of air flow join together again over Fuzhou. Evidences suggest that the developing mesoscale vortex triggered by favorable surrounding conditio ns is the main reason producing this heavy rainfall. In addition, asymmetry sadd lebacked structure of θe vertical profile, the upper negative and lower positive moist potential vorticity, as well as the highlevel divergence and lowlev el convergence provide dynamical and thermodynamical conditions for occurrence and development of this heavy rain.
    5  The Impact of Seasonal Drops of SST in offshore along South America on ENSO Ev ent in Autumn of Recent Years
    Li Wei Zhai Panmao
    2007, 33(2):29-33. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.005
    [Abstract](485) [HTML](50) [PDF 1.20 M](759)
    Firstly, characteristics in the evolvement of SST in offshore of South America since 1950 were studied. It was found that the trends of annual undulati on amplitude of monthly mean SST in Nino 1+2 kept increasing since 1999, which c aused seasonal drops of SST in northeastern tropical East Pacific. The minimums of monthly mean SST obviously being lower than normal in autumn are the major ca use, and such a situation kept for so long time that it does not come forth befo re year 1950s. Further study reveals that seasonal drops of SST in offshore of S o uth America in autumn weakened the possibility of ENSO warm event, and made the 2002/2003 El Nino be an ENSO event which got through the longest time to transfo rm from La Nina episode into El Nino episode since the 1950s.
    6  Analysis of the Quality Assurance Procedures in Intensified Automatic Surface Weather Observation System
    Tao shiwei Xu Zhifang
    2007, 33(2):34-41. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.006
    [Abstract](544) [HTML](56) [PDF 467.49 K](848)
    The Intensified Automatic surface Weather observation System (IAWS) is becoming accomplished with the enhancement of the observation system in China. Local IAW S network has been set up in many areas and much attention has been paid to the application of IAWS data. Because of the special characteristic of IAWS, the appl ication is postponed by the problem of data quality in some degree. In order to facilitate the study on IAWS data Quality Assurance(QA) procedures in our countr y, three aspects are analyzed in this paper. First, the speciality of IAWS is analyzed by comparing the characteristics of IAWS data and Conventional Manu al surface eather observation System (CMWS) data.Second,the experiences of building up the IAWS QA procedure in other countries are introduced as reference. At las t, the differences are analyzed between the IAWS QA and CMWS QA, and the key as pects and problems are pointed out to be notified during the setup of IAWS QA. R esults show that the IAWS QA is different from CMWS QA in some aspects. More att ention should be paid in management of IAWS operation, the automatic quality co ntrol at station level, as well as manual quality control and quality monitoring .
    7  Research on Meteorology Evaluation of Ecological Quality in Beijing Based on S atellite Data
    Liu Yonghong Wu Chunyan Li Huijun Gao Yanhu Ye Caihua
    2007, 33(2):42-48. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.007
    [Abstract](514) [HTML](50) [PDF 1.97 M](817)
    Present meteorology evaluation of ecological quality has some difficul ty in practical use and satellite data are not used adequately. By using the 3S technology, the methods of extracting information of ecological quality indexes mainly by satellite data are studied, especially in extracting information on ve getation coverage index and soil degradation index. And these methods were appli ed for meteorology evaluation of ecological quality of Beijing in the second sea son in 2006. The evaluation results are satisfying and also show that the method s of extracting information on ecological quality indexes with satellite data ar e feasible and practical.
    8  A Comparative Analysis on Two Severe Hail Events in Beijing Urban District in 2005
    Wang Hua Sun Jisong Li Jin
    2007, 33(2):49-56. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.008
    [Abstract](917) [HTML](98) [PDF 1.90 M](1084)
    It is crucial to well forecast severe convective weather like hail and provide better service during summer in Beijing. Synoptic dynamics and mesoscal e characteristics of two severe hailstorms are analyzed by using conventional ob servation and the data from automatic weather stations, Doppler radar and wind p rofiler, etc. Comparisons show that they differ greatly from each other on the c irculation pattern, local weather condition and mesoscale system. The coupled up per and lower jet flows, energy condition and the vertical wind shear, conduced more to the occurrence of the May31 hail event. It was under the direct influe nce of supercell structure. In contrast, the June7 hail event developed from a t ypical squallline. Evolvement of the two hailstorms and areas of hail fall hav e good relations with their mesoscale systems. For the May31 hail , the influen cing system is on mesoγscale, while it is on mesoβscale for the June7 hail on. Warning and forecasting of the former hail event is relatively more difficu lt. To well monitor and nowcast these sudden events, full use of the high spatia l and time resolution detection data is needed in future.
    9  Dynamical Diagnosis of the Spring Snowstorm Process Based on Doppler Weather Radar
    Miao Aimei An Wei Liu Yueli Hu Zhiqun Li Qinghua
    2007, 33(2):57-61. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.009
    [Abstract](904) [HTML](49) [PDF 4.70 M](1127)
    By using the data of CWave Band Doppler weather radar and the precip itation data from AWS in Taiyuan, a regional snowstorm event occurring in Shanxi on April 11, 2006 was analyzed. The average divergence and vertical velocity of the vertical height layers were calculated quantitatively with the improved tec hnology of EVAD. Their changes in time and space and the corresponding relations hip with this snowstorm were further investigated. The results indicate that the strong updraft always keeping less than 2.5km is the basic dynamical mai n taining mechanism of heavy snowstorms; if anabatic movement appears in whole lower layer and the h eight ofthe strong updraft center is lower and lower along with time accompany ing with strong downdraft in middlehigh layers, then heavy snowstorm will appe ar in 2 hours later there. The intensity of snow is closely related to the divergence and convergence in each height layer within the radar's coverage, and the intensific ation or decrease of the divergence and convergence appears ahead of that of the snow intensity. These results provide some theoretic basis for forecasting the occurrence and disappearance of snowfall and the development of snow intensity.
    10  Analysis of Summer Heavy Rainfall in Eastern Xinjiang
    Daoran·Japayi Che Gang Li Ruqi
    2007, 33(2):62-69. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.010
    [Abstract](530) [HTML](41) [PDF 2.79 M](712)
    On the basis of the summer rainfall data of six stations in eastern Xi njiang from 1961 to 2000, NCEP/NCAR 6h reanalysis data and routine observed dat a, the synoptic and climatic features of the summer heavy rainfall in eastern Xi njiang, along with the circulation patterns, influencing weather systems and the ir forming mechanism, were investigated, and the physical concept model of the t ypical case was established, and some premonitory signs for the genesis of heavy rainfall were presented.
    11  Climate Change of the Lanjiang River Basin in Recent 43 Years  and Its Impacts on Water Resources
    Kang Lili Gu Junqiang Fan Gaofeng
    2007, 33(2):70-75. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.011
    [Abstract](461) [HTML](59) [PDF 1.41 M](796)
    The climate change and its impacts on water resources in recent 43 years (1961-2 003) in the Lanjiang River Basin are studied by analyzing the temperature, preci pita tion and runoff with the cumulative departure method. The results show that the temperature and precipitation of the Lanjiang basin had a rising trend in the re cent 43 years. Since 1961, the temperature and precipitation have increased most in the 1990s which is contributed by rising in temperature of winter and spring and in precipitation of summer. The annual runoff of the Lanjiang River Basin keeps the same trend as the annual precipitation. Thus the climate change in the Lanjiang Riv er Basin has the impact on it's water resources. There is a difference in spatia l distribution of the water resources in the Lanjiang River Basin, and the Jinhu a City in the Lanjiang River Basin is subject to climate change which can resul t in a shortage of fresh water.
    12  Analysis of Chilly Disaster During Wheat Grain Filling, 2006 at Bozhou, Anhui Province
    Ma Kuixia Cao Jinjuan Li Yunfeng
    2007, 33(2):76-80. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.012
    [Abstract](490) [HTML](60) [PDF 1017.51 K](784)
    Based on data of wheat grain filling, 1000grain weight, the meteorological obs ervations and weather charts etc., an analysis of the winter wheat growing rate changes in the grain filling is made with the meteorological factors. The result s are as follows:(1)The change of wheat growing rate and 1000grain weight appe ar doublepeak pattern. (2)The chilly disaster is the main factor affecting win ter wheat growth rate in the grain filling. (3)The chilly disaster in 2006 is af fected alternately by three branch of cold air.
    13  Analysis and Application of Climatic Ecosystem Characteristics  of Perennial Farmland Lotus Root
    Mao Zhanglin Zhao Xianchan
    2007, 33(2):81-87. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.013
    [Abstract](488) [HTML](60) [PDF 398.95 K](796)
    Climatic ecosystem characteristics of perennial farmland lotus root, isn't fully alike with the annual pond lotus root. By 3year parallel observation s with the lotus root's growth and the farmland microclimate, the basic characte ristics are shown that the farmland lotus root requires warm and sunshine condit ions, but can't bear the low temperature with the overcast and rainy. The temper ature index of young sprout growth is expected to have the average daily air tem perature ≥13℃, the temperature of first leaf's growth period≥15℃, and the pe riod of lotus root's procreation≥18℃. Because the spring lotus root more easil y suffers from the disadvantageous weather conditions in the anaphase and the co ld air often invades in the end of spring and early summer, some techniques like temperature adjustment with water and douche are put forward for improving farmland lotus root production, better making use of the n atural resources like weather and climate, and increasing the agriculture effect and farmer's income.
    14  Radar Echo Characteristics of a Strong Convection in Harbin on June 18,2003
    Ma Fuwei
    2007, 33(2):88-92. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.014
    [Abstract](567) [HTML](79) [PDF 3.39 M](721)
    Using CINRAD echo data, the radar echo characteristics of hail cloud o f a strong convection occurring in Acheng and Wuchang Area of Harbin city on Jun e 18,2003 are analyzed. The methods and the new criteria for detecting the hail cloud and identifying false echo with CINRAD are given.
    15  Sunshine Change Characteristics and Its Causes in Northwest  Shandong for Last 52 years
    Shi Huilan Wang Xintang Shao Zhiyong Chen Chengguo Liu Chunhong
    2007, 33(2):93-97. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.015
    [Abstract](613) [HTML](248) [PDF 882.77 K](772)
    Based on the data of sunshine, cloud amount, haze, fog, sand dust, fro m 1954 to 2005, at Dezhou, Shandong Province, the climate tendency is calculated with the least square method. The result indicated that, the Dezhou sunshine du ration reduced by 105.0 hours per 10 years, the sunshine percentage reduced by 2 .4% per 10 years. Total cloud amount reduced by 0.03 tenth per 10 years. The san dstorm, blowing sand, and floating dust day numbers assume the obviously reduced tendency. Low cloud amount and haze, mist, foggy days appeared to have an incre ase tendency, in particular, from the late 1990s an obvious increase, correspond ing to the economical scale fast growth from the mid 1990s. It has explained tha t the sunshine decrease is mainly because the low cloud amount increases and the human activity enhances, specially, the atmospheric aerosol due to the industri al emission suddenly increases.
    16  Analysis of CINRAD/SA Weather Radar Servo System Special Malfunction
    Zhou Honggen Zhou Xiangjun Qi Xin Wang Yaojun Tang Jianguo Cao Deyu
    2007, 33(2):98-101. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.016
    [Abstract](874) [HTML](75) [PDF 326.58 K](893)
    Since the CINRAD/SA weather radars run operationally, many special malfu nctions have appeared in the antenna and servo systems. Some special malfunctions of ant enna and servo system are selected from some CINRAD/SA weather radars including Lianyungang weather radar, which result in PUP picture abnormity. The causation is detected, by using the RDASOT test program, measuring the feedback voltage of the electromotor which is for measuring the rate, and analyzing the base data o f the radar.
    17  Meteorological Condition for a LargeScale CO Toxic Accident
    Wang Xiaoming Sun Li Liu Haifeng Zhang Zhiyong
    2007, 33(2):102-106. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.017
    [Abstract](484) [HTML](58) [PDF 602.10 K](717)
    A serious CO toxic accident occurred in Yanbian,Jinlin Province in February 13 16, 2006.An analysis of the meteorological elements of the event is made. The re sult shows that the strong inversion occurs in the surface layer with a low heig ht of maximal inversion top,and about zerowind velocity occurs near the surfac e. Both are the main reasons to cause the event.At the same time,the temperature rises and the air pressure falls evidently. It is unusual in the last 46 years that the suitable meteorological element,but only when several meteorological el ements control the same region together,will the CO toxic accident take place.
    18  Weather Conditions of the 16 May Great Fire Accident of Camphor Wood Forest in Honggolj in 2006
    Zhao Huiying Meng Jun Song Weishi Wang Yanping
    2007, 33(2):107-111. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.018
    [Abstract](694) [HTML](41) [PDF 439.51 K](736)
    A serious fire accident event occurred and spread in camphor wood fore st in Honggolj, Hulun Buir, Inner Mongolia in May 16, 2006. The weather conditio ns of the event are analyzed synthetically based on the meteorological data, the meteorological satellite and GIS data. The result indicates that (1) the high t emperature and less rainfall with serious droughty and gale are the important co nditions for the event occurrence; (2) The calculated synthetic indexes of fores t combustibility are 395 and 423, that build a fire for lightning stroke accordi ng with practical situation; (3) The spread speed in fire field was 137.2hm2/h under forcefour wind with the temperature in the range of 5.9—6.5℃ ; and the speed was 173.2hm2/h under forcefive wind with temperature 7.6~8.4℃. (4) That speed is usually 137~173 hm2/h under the varying range of force 4 5 wind and 5.9~8.4℃ temperature.
    19  Verification of Medium-range Forecasting Efficiency Of T213 and ECMWF and JAPAN Model From September to November 2006
    Yang Chuaihuan
    2007, 33(2):112-117. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2007.02.019
    [Abstract](849) [HTML](56) [PDF 3.00 M](736)
    In order to understand the efficiency of the mediumrange forecasting of T213 products in autumn, the synoptic verification to the products of T213 9 6h mediumterm numerical forecasting from Sep. to Nov. 2006,and some comparison s with the NWP of ECMWF and JAPAN model are made. The results show that three mod els all have a good performance in forecasting the largescale circulation of t h e high and middle latitudes. The product of ECMWF model is better in forecasting westerly index, the temperature of 850hPa and southern branch trough, while the product of JAPAN model plays an important role in process forecasting in 4—6 N ov., 2006. But with regard to the precision of the intensity, position and occurr ed time of the weather system, T213 model still has a way to go.

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