ISSN 1000-0526
CN 11-2282/P

Volume 32,Issue 7,2006 Table of Contents

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  • 1  Analysis of Cloud Schemes in Simulation of Short-Term Climatic Process
    章建成 刘奇俊
    2006, 32(7):3-12. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.001
    [Abstract](821) [HTML](117) [PDF 713.28 K](871)
    Abstract:
    Based on the Hu Zhijin and Liu Qijun′s cloud physics scheme, a explicit cloud scheme in GRAPES model is developed. A short-term climatic process is simulated with warm cloud scheme and the explicit cloud scheme. The results show that GRAPES model with the explicit cloud scheme has greater simulation capability in comparison with observation and NCEP analyzed data. It is able to reveal the distributions of precipitation, surface temperature, cloudiness, the top-of-atmosphere radiation budget. Result of experiment shows that the differences between warm cloud scheme and phase mixed cloud scheme are obvious in precipitation, surface temperature, cloudiness and radiation budget in the simulation of short-term climatic process. It is found that the various phase water coagulation and its distribution have a strong influence on radiation budget. Simulated results of phase mixed cloud scheme are better than those of warm cloud scheme,so phase mixed cloud scheme should be used in simulation of short-term climatic process.
    2  Evaluation of Convective Parameters Derived from Mesoscale Numerical Model by Sounding Data
    李佳英 俞小鼎 王迎春
    2006, 32(7):13-17. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.002
    [Abstract](810) [HTML](95) [PDF 296.52 K](932)
    Abstract:
    To improve the accuracy of convection weather forecast, one of the key issues is to find out the atmospheric vertical stability and wind shear. The mesoscale numerical model provides information on the atmospheric vertical stability and wind shear with high spatial and temporal resolution, and the reliability of the parameters derived from model output need to be well checked for the further application to the convection weather forecast. Using the radiosonde data of Beijing weather station, the convective parameters from mesoscale numerical model MM5 with a resolution of 3km run in Beijing Meteorological Bureau are carefully checked. The convective parameters are compared between the forecast results and the soundings. Results show that wind and temperature profiles produced by the model are useful to some extent,while when inversion or strong shift of wind direction occur, simulation results are much poorer. The forecast dew point profiles show very large errors, indicating the model gives a very poor water vapor distribution. The predicted deep layer vertical wind shear (from ground to 500hPa) shows good consistence with the radiosonde data, while the simulated CAPE is totally different from the observed value because of the errors in predicted temperature and dew point . The simulated CAPE value must be properly revised in order to diagnose the possible occurrence of the strong convective weather.
    3  Algorithm Study on Similarity Retrieval of Typhoon Tracks
    刘勇 吴必文 王东勇
    2006, 32(7):18-24. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.003
    [Abstract](808) [HTML](180) [PDF 2.45 M](908)
    Abstract:
    A typhoon track can be considered as a curve on a two-dimension plane. According to the similarity deviation of two typhoon track curves, their numerical similarity and geometrical similarity can be estimated. There are still some difficulties and limitation when the original typhoon data are applied to the formula of similarity deviation. Based on the principle of similitude deviation, a brand new algorithm is designed to calculate the similar degree between two typhoon tracks. According to this algorithm, the control points on the two typhoon track curves are picked up, the distance between corresponding control point on the different curves and the direction of the distance deviation are calculated. As a result, the similar degree of two typhoon track curves can be easily estimated but need to calculate the similar deviation in one direction. Compared with the source typhoon track, the most similar destination typhoon track can be retrieved from the historical typhoon database by means of this new algorithm.
    4  A Numerical Simulation of Cloud Microphysics Parameters for Sustaining Snowfall in Shandong Province
    迟竹萍 龚佃利
    2006, 32(7):25-32. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.004
    [Abstract](804) [HTML](99) [PDF 4.82 M](842)
    Abstract:
    To better understanding of the sustaining snowfall occurred in Shandong on 14—16 February 2005,the PSU/NCAR MM5 model is used to replicate the process. The simulation results show that the start, evolvement and duration the event agree well with the observation although some shortage exist. On the basis of success simulation, the conditions of vapor and evolvement of cloud microphysics parameter in the process are analyzed with the model output data, especially the quality content of ice(Qi), graupel(Qg), snow(Qs), cloud water(Qc) and rain water(Qr) calculated with Reisner graupel scheme. The results show that the sustaining snowfall is based on the vapor supply from SW and SE winds, the development and evolution of the shear-line and intermediate cyclone on 850hPa.The simulated velocity and cloud microphysics fields show that vertical motion is dynamics factor causing the vapor condensation and freezing, and ice particle increase. The opportunity of artificial seeding in different condition is also discussed.
    5  An Analysis on Characteristics of Landing and Going Northward Typhoons and Its Causes during 1975—2005
    金荣花 高拴柱 顾华 刘震坤
    2006, 32(7):33-39. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.005
    [Abstract](874) [HTML](295) [PDF 6.30 M](910)
    Abstract:
    Using observational data and daily NCEP/NCAR reanalysis dataset during 1975—2005, the climatic features of landing and going northward typhoon, the corresponding large-scale circulation patterns and the distributions of the meteorological parameters during the landing periods are discussed. Results show that the variation of the position and the intensity of the western Pacific subtropical high play a crucial role in going northward typhoons. Furthermore, the middle-latitude westerlies systems and the South Asian High actions have an important influence on typhoon′s northward movements. Above results are hoped to be helpful in the track prediction of landing typhoons.
    6  Migration of Meteorological Code Forms and Its Impacts on Meteorological Operation Systems
    高华云
    2006, 32(7):40-45. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.07.006
    [Abstract](445) [HTML](162) [PDF 2.67 M](817)
    Abstract:
    In allusion to the migration plan of the meteorological observation data, the presentation of meteorological code forms and the migration implementation scheme of WMO is introduced briefly. The migration implementation scheme of CMA is also suggested.The analyses of the impacts of the migration on the current meteorological operational systems of CMA (including the observation system, the telecommunication system and the data application system) are emphasized. The reply steps and the schemes to avoid or decrease the impacts are given.
    7  Application of Matlab to Analysis of Flight Track during Aircraft Precipitation-Enhancement Field Experiment over Beijing
    汪晓滨 吕亚丽 王广河 张蔷 刘新建 毛节泰
    2006, 32(7):46-51. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.007
    [Abstract](834) [HTML](83) [PDF 410.77 K](963)
    Abstract:
    The flight track data analysis is important for the packing up the data in the exploration of the cloud physics and the atmospheric environment with aircraft. The discontinuousness of flight track data and conversion of geography data (longitude and latitude) are the issues that often occur in the GPS′s analysis. The new record system of the flight track with GPS in Cheyenne ⅢA was used in the project of the Beijing field experiment in 2004. The method of analyzing the data and checking out the badness log data including those discontinuous data is discussed with the Matlab′s function of matrix operation. The expressions for analyzing the geography data using the carry forward conversion are given.
    8  Functions of Lenze Servo Controller and Its Application to CINRAD/SB
    何炳文 顾松山 高嵩 郭庆
    2006, 32(7):52-57. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.008
    [Abstract](501) [HTML](122) [PDF 386.58 K](763)
    Abstract:
    In order to better use and maintain the weather radar, the fundamental operational principle of the newly generated Doppler weather radar CINRAD/SB Servo System, and the function and application of Lenze Servo Controller are introduced.It sums up some technological problems and corresponding solutions when the radar is in the process of debugging while leaving factory, rectifying and improving, trial run and formal operation. It adopts the semi-closed loop controlling project, solves the problem of accurate orientation by appropriately controlming the driving chain, uses the Controller Area Network to communicate and control, makes use of Servo Controller′s “inner tripping operation” to solve the automatic reset of the Controller Area Network, utilizes Servo System′s own function to resolve the switch of working manners. Through the test on the spot, the closed loop controlling accuracy of the radar′s angle of azimuth and elevation outstrips than 0.1°. According to instructions, the Servo System can correctly switch various volume models, such as VCP11, VCP21, VCP31, etc. and receive various instructions. All the factual test on the spot and operational effect indicate that this system′s design is successful.
    9  Analysis of a Severe Thunderstorm Event in Urumqi International Airport
    黄海波 米永胜 郑永光
    2006, 32(7):58-63. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.009
    [Abstract](582) [HTML](93) [PDF 4.54 M](811)
    Abstract:
    Both the evil weather derived from the thunderstorm and the thunderstorm itself are severe threats to the flight safety. Based on the conventional data, satellite image and radar echo combined with diagnostic analysis of moist potential vorticity, a severe thunderstorm event occurred in urumqi inter-national airport on June 26, 2005 is analyzed. The results show that:(1) when the thunder-storm occurred, the surface features and the weather of the airport changed abruptly as follows:the temperature lapsed, the humidity rose surprisingly with the pressure surging,the strong wind and heavy shower followed subsequently. (2) The event was triggered by a squall line . The genesis of the squall line may have relations with the interaction between a cold meso-α scale high pressure and a short-life warm meso-β scale low pressure. (3) Accumulated unstable enengy released explosively after the cold air damaged the inversion layer, which blocked the upward transportation and diffusion of water vapour and heat. (4) The moist symmetric unstable region of 925hPa indicates the thunderstorm location in some sense, a strong thunderstorm may occur in the central region where MPV<0.
    10  Precipitation Prediction with AREM Numerical Model in Sichuan Flood Season in 2005
    何光碧 陈静 肖玉华 顾清源 李川
    2006, 32(7):64-71. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.010
    [Abstract](410) [HTML](96) [PDF 4.54 M](786)
    Abstract:
    Using AREM model, a real-time precipitation prediction in Sichuan flood season in 2005 is made. The results are as follows: 1.the performance of AREM model is better than ETA model which is operation model in Chendu region meteorological center and TS score values of AREM model is higher than that of T213 model. 2.The elements such as height, temperature and vortex are predictable. But the predictability of the elements such as ground temperature, vapor contents and vapor flux divergence of the whole atmosphere level is lower. 3. AREM model has prediction ability to five local heavy rain happed in Sichuan flood season in 2005, but still are there the differences between the precipitation prediction of the model and observation. The intensity of precipitation of the model is weaker than the observation.
    11  Comparison of Causes of Torrential Rain in Different Areas on Meiyu Front Precipitation Band
    熊秋芬 胡江林 张耀存
    2006, 32(7):72-80. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.011
    [Abstract](534) [HTML](86) [PDF 5.25 M](742)
    Abstract:
    Based on the NCEP, TBB and observation data, the study of a torrential rain along Meiyu front in Yangtze River during July 9—10, 2003 is made. The diagnostic results show that the torrential rain on Meiyu front developed under the favorable environmental fields to cooperate with synoptic systems between the upper, middle and low levels through the interactions of circulations among different latitudes. The direct influencing system of torrential rain is β convective system. But the influencing systems in two regions are slightly different. The structure of Meiyu front has unique characteristics apart from typical feature. The structures of Meiyu front are different in two areas and the diversities of complicating structures of Meiyu front are revealed.
    12  Diagnostic Analysis and Numerical Simulation of Typhoon Aili Rainstorm
    杨宇红 沈新勇 林两位 寿绍文
    2006, 32(7):81-87. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.012
    [Abstract](836) [HTML](89) [PDF 460.75 K](848)
    Abstract:
    Based on PSU/NCAR′s mesoscale model MM5(V3.7), the typhoon Aili rainstorm event is investigated. The results show that the anisomerous distribution of wind field is one of reasons causing Typhoon turning. The center of rainstorm is in the high value area of Convective Available Potentional Energy (CAPE), the center of Storm Relative Helicity(SRH), and the common boundary of positive and negative Qvecter divergence. The sensitive numerical experiments are also conducted. It is concluded that terrain have significant impacts on vertical motion, intensity and distribution of heavy rainfall
    13  A Mesoscale Analysis of a Heavy Rainfall Event in Hebei on 23 July 2005
    侯瑞钦 景华 张迎新 张文君
    2006, 32(7):88-94. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.013
    [Abstract](1599) [HTML](133) [PDF 8.17 M](747)
    Abstract:
    Based on the routine observational data as well as data of satellite, automatic weather stations, densified rainfall stations and Doppler radar in Hebei Province, the dynamical and mesoscale signature for the heavy rainfall event occurred on July 22—24,2005 is analyzed. The results show that the heavy rainfall occurrs in the favorable environmental conditions. The main reasons to the severe convective weather are the water vapor accumulation on lower levels and strong divergence on upper levels caused by subtropical High and tropical depression which provided thermal and dynamical conditions. There are three severe convective cloud clusters and three meso-β rain clusters during the heavy rainfall, and the rain clusters appeared on the mesoscale convergence line or the warm and moisture side of the mesoscale low.Strong radar echoes and positive-negative velocity and head wind area are indicative to the heavy rainfall event.
    14  A Diagnostic Analysis of Potential Vorticity for Yunnan Heavy Rain in Autumn 2004
    尤红 曹中和
    2006, 32(7):95-101. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.014
    [Abstract](689) [HTML](80) [PDF 2.45 M](804)
    Abstract:
    Based on NCEP grid data and routine observational data, the characteristics of the potential vorticity (PV) of heavy rainfall occurring in Yunnan Province during autumn of 2004 are analyzed. The results show that both DPV and MPV can well present the features of the weather systems. The DPV reflects both convergence intensity between Yunnan Province and Guizhou Province and surface cold air moving activities more particularly. The MPV can reflect well cold and warm air flowing characteristics. During the heavy rainfall in the upper troposphere the strong DPV and MPV tend downwards to the low-level, and vice MPV in the lower troposphere stretch up. The direction and intensity changes of the big center of DPV and MPV in the upper troposphere tend to downward the lower-levels are consistent with the moving direction of heavy rainfall belts and the variation of the rain intensity. The origin of the middle tropospheric strong DPV lies in the east of Sichuan Province in this rainfall process, which indicates some relation between the heavy rain in the eastern Sichuan Province during 2-6 September and the rainfall process in Yunnan Province.
    15  Integrated Analysis of a Severe Sand-dust Storm in Hexi Corridor in Summer
    王锡稳 刘治国 黄玉霞 张铁军 程鹏
    2006, 32(7):102-109. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.015
    [Abstract](1511) [HTML](150) [PDF 485.12 K](840)
    Abstract:
    Using the observational and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the characteristics of an unusual severe summer sand-dust storm in Hexi corridor is analyzed. The results show that upper trough and shear line and thermal depression are main synoptic systems introducing summer sand-dust storm. The value of air pressure, wind speed and relative humidity increased, and the value of air temperature descended when the summer sand-dust storm occured, but the changing extents were less than that of meteorological elements in spring sand-dust storm. The summer sand-dust storm is as characteristics of middle-small scale cloud cluster on cloud image, the cloud cluster of TBB≤-35℃ can show the change of sandstorm in summer. The diagnostic analysis shows that there is convergence in low level and divergence in upper level, sandstorm happened after the appearance of max vertical velocity, and at the same time, the helicity in eve of sand-dust storm eruption has good indication in the forecasting of sand-dust storm. When the helicity is large, the sand-dust storm is severe.
    16  Cause Analysis of a Strong Convective Weather Process
    夏丽花 冯晋勤 黄美金 陈德花
    2006, 32(7):110-114. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.016
    [Abstract](914) [HTML](161) [PDF 2.80 M](898)
    Abstract:
    Based on the conventional observations and Doppler radar data, a strong convective weather process occurring over Fujian on 4—5 May 2005 is analyzed. The process happened over the prefrontal warm sector. It showed that the release of unstable energy was triggered by the invasion of weak cold air. Strong updrafts produced by the coupled high-and low-level jets were favorable for occurrence of the severe weather. Strong water vapor transport and atmospheric instability contributed to the formation and development of three squall lines, which were the weather systems directly causing the severe weather. The analyses of radar data indicated that three echoes grew into the squall lines in turn after they moved into Fujian Province.
    17  Rainfall Visualization based on Surfer 8.0
    林伙海 吴陈锋
    2006, 32(7):115-118. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.7.017
    [Abstract](571) [HTML](101) [PDF 232.93 K](859)
    Abstract:
    This article demonstrates basic principles on how to visualize rainfall by using software Surfer 8.0 connecting with VB6.0. The structure procedures of the software system and key techniques are also introduced, and the image products and main functions are shown in it.

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