ISSN 1000-0526
CN 11-2282/P

Volume 32,Issue 10,2006 Table of Contents

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  • 1  On Physical Structure of Stratiform Cloud During a Precipitation Process in Henan Province
    金华 王广河 游来光 酆大雄
    2006, 32(10):3-10. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.001
    [Abstract](716) [HTML](57) [PDF 7.26 M](655)
    Abstract:
    A precipitation process caused by a cold front and a southwest vortex occurred on April 14,2000 in Henan province.The cloud system distributed unevenly.There was a band-shaped gap between two clouds and two band-echoes appearing on radar echo images.Non-uniformity also appeared inside the cloud bands and the cloud system was layered vertically.The microphysical characteristics of the precipitable cloud system were analyzed.The areas with plenty of supercooled liquid water(SLW)were determined according to the PMS indices.Distributing characteristics of the areas with plenty of SLW were analyzed by using satellite and radar data.Evidence of convective unstability of the precipitable cloud system was also observed.
    2  Frequency Spectrum of Standard Lightning Currents and Its Application
    陈绍东 王孝波 李斌 杨少杰
    2006, 32(10):11-19. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.002
    [Abstract](690) [HTML](646) [PDF 493.42 K](732)
    Abstract:
    The amplitude and energy distributions of the voltage and current in the different frequency bands can be obtained by analyzing the frequency spectrum of standard lightning currents.The general lightning currents of 8/20(μs)and 10/350(μs),return stroke of 0.25/100(μs)and the testing currents recommended by national standardization(10/200(μs),4/300(μs),1.2/50(μs),10/700(μs))are selected to compute the frequency spectrum of amplitude and energy by the use of the continuous Fourier analysis,and they are compared with those of natural lightning radiation field.The results show that the amplitude and energy of lightning currents mainly appear in the range of low frequency,and amplitude frequency is less than 1MHz,but the frequency spectrum of the energy is from several kHz to several hundreds kHz.The half peak value time(t2)of currents is a crucial factor in the frequency spectrum distribution of amplitude and energy,which determines the abundance of currents' wave in the parts of low frequency.The results should be an important reference in the application and design of lightning protection.
    3  Using MODIS Vegetation Index to Study Urban Expansion and Change
    张春桂
    2006, 32(10):20-26. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.003
    [Abstract](752) [HTML](83) [PDF 435.15 K](640)
    Abstract:
    It has been more and more noticed by people that the urban expansion and change impact urban environments.Take Fuzhou City as a demonstration case,the RVI,DVI,NDVI and VCI,which indicate urban vegetation coverage change,are calculated every year by using MODIS data of EOS satellite during 2001—2005.With the help of GIS and GPS,the interannual dynamic changes of different vegetation index in Fuzhou are researched,and urban expansion and change in Fuzhou are monitored based on MODIS data.At the same time,the research results are analyzed with socio-economic data.The results show that the urban expansion areas in Fuzhou have increased by about 29km2 between 2001 and 2005,about 7.3km2 each year.The above results are credible in comparison with the real situation.The urban expansion areas can be monitored correctly by using MODIS data.
    4  Extreme High Temperatures in Southern China in 2003 under the Background of Climate Change
    王亚伟 翟盘茂 田华
    2006, 32(10):27-33. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.004
    [Abstract](835) [HTML](175) [PDF 497.75 K](744)
    Abstract:
    Using the daily maximum and mean air surface temperature data of 121 stations in the area of southern China for the period 1961—2004,the change characteristics of the maximum temperature in the area was analyzed.The result is that severe heatwave with most frequent hot days occurred over southern China during summer 2003.Although there were increase trends for both the mean maximum temperature and mean temperature,it is not quite ture in the numbers of extreme hot days with daily maximum temperature above 35℃ in southern China during 1961—2004.The analysis of the probability of maximum temperature in South China during the summer of 2003 revealed that this event can't be considered as a reflection of long time trends,but rather than an episode under interannual variability.
    5  Applied Comparison of Two Products of Vertically Integrated Liquid Water Content
    吴书君 王凤娇 刘昭武 冯桂利
    2006, 32(10):34-40. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.005
    [Abstract](595) [HTML](145) [PDF 425.15 K](731)
    Abstract:
    By using the data of grid-based vertically integrated liquid water(VIL)and cell-based VIL,which were observed by Binzhou SC radar in volume scan mode,vertical structures of several severe convective storms were studied.The results show that the two VIL products varied in-phase with storm evolution,and they were both well indicative for warning damage weather.Generally,cell-based VIL is larger than grid-based VIL,especially in the case of mature and isolated severe cell storms.The difference of the two VIL products may be used as the quantitative indicator of cell storm intensity.The limitation of volume scan mode possibly leads to the VIL distortion,due to the increase of VIL errors caused by the identification of centroid of multicell storm.
    6  Research on Freezing up and Melting Forecast of Ninxia-Inner Mongolia Section of the Yellow River
    康志明 张芳华 李金田 王文东 金少华 杨克明
    2006, 32(10):41-45. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.006
    [Abstract](604) [HTML](54) [PDF 330.12 K](632)
    Abstract:
    Based on meteorological and hydrological observed data,the character and physical cause of the ice run along Ningxia-Inner Mongolia Section of the Yellow River have been systematically analyzed.Statistical analysis of some factors that are interrelated to freezing up and melting of the river shows that the change of temperature is the main factor that affects the freezing up of the river,the river freezes up when the decadal mean temperature is lower than-5℃;meanwhile there is no critical air temperature index related to the thaw date of river ice,the date has a clear negative correlation with the temperature of Jan and Feb.Forecast equation was established through stepwise regression based on the factors created by Chebyshev polynomials,and it has proved to have good capability by the experimental forecast.
    7  Error Analyses for Temperature of L Band Radiosonde
    陶士伟 陈晓红 龚建东
    2006, 32(10):46-51. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.007
    [Abstract](504) [HTML](51) [PDF 320.52 K](717)
    Abstract:
    Up to June 2005,L band digital radiosondes are used in 36 upper-air observation stations in China.In order to understand the observation error characters,the error analysis is made about the observed temperature data of L band digital radiosonde from March to May of 2005.The mean and root mean square biases of observation minus background field of T213 model,which is called OMB,are calculated.Bessel fitting technique is used to separating out observation error from OMB.The results show that comparing with Model-59 radiosonde observation data,there is no obvious difference(usually in 0.2℃)in the mean of OMB.But a great reduction is made in random errors of temperature of L band digital radiosonde:at 12Z and at 00Z 500~300hPa about 0.2℃;at 00Z above 300hPa,about 0.4℃,accounting for the 25% of the random errors of temperature for Model-59 radiosonde.
    8  On the Radio-Acoustic Sounding System(RASS)of Boundary-layer Atmospheric Profiling Radar
    王勇 安建平 卜祥元 贾晓星
    2006, 32(10):52-56. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.008
    [Abstract](552) [HTML](103) [PDF 1.37 M](606)
    Abstract:
    The wind profiling radar has been developed more widely recently in the atmosphere.It is a very economic and effective method to measure atmospheric temperature by using a Radio-Acoustic Sounding System(RASS)based on the wind profiling radar.According to the RASS finished in 2004,the theory of RASS and characteristics which involve precision,height,and other factors concerned about it are all discussed.The scheme of the RASS is given in detail.At last,the real measurement result and temperature spectrum figure of the RASS are shown,and prove that the system has succeed in atmospheric temperature measurement in real time.
    9  Analysis of Doppler Radar Echoes of a Thunderstorm with Local Sandstorm in Inner Mongolia
    韩经纬 孟雪峰 宋桂英
    2006, 32(10):57-63. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.009
    [Abstract](726) [HTML](117) [PDF 5.42 M](652)
    Abstract:
    With the CINRAD/CD Doppler radar and T213 numerical production,a thunderstorm with sandstorm,and strong wind was continuously monitored and analyzed in the central-southern areas of Inner Mongolia autonomous.It shows that before the sandstorm appeared,the convergence center of the low level divergence coupled with the center of the vertical rising movement,and with the rebellious wind area of radar data.The intensity of physical field approached or even exceeded the ones of local heavy rain or strong convection weather.The relative humidity is badly poor above the sandstorm region,especially at the lower level.The analysis of CINRAD/CD Doppler radar data indicates that the severe sandstorm and wind appeared because of the strong converging and revolving of the meso-γ scale system.The great reflectivity area overlapping the heaviest positive/negative speed area,and the strong shear between the positive speed and the negative ones,strengthen the converging and revolving of the meso-γ scale system.The strong sandstorm emerged in the converse wind area of the meso-γ scale system,while the strongest wind beside the sandstorm appeared in the projecting position of the bow-shape echo,the outflow or in the radial speed picture.
    10  Products of CINRAD-SA Doppler Radar Applied to Different Typical Weather
    李云川 王福侠 裴宇杰 刘晓霞
    2006, 32(10):64-69. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.010
    [Abstract](3047) [HTML](400) [PDF 14.01 M](22296)
    Abstract:
    Based on the data of CINRAD Doppler Radar which located at Xinle of Hebei Province,the hail,strong wind and heavy rainfall weather events in mid-south Hebei in 2004 are statistically analyzed.The routine radar products,such as echo reflectivity,radial velocity,Vertically Integrated Liquid(VIL)Water,hail index,mesocyclone,velocity azimuth display wind profile,etc.are used in this statistics.The results show that hail's VIL value is larger than generic thunder storm's.At the same time,greater VIL value and longer sustaining will bring about greater diameter hail and larger effect area.It is the very useful index to indicate strong wind in mesocyclone products and the wind direction sudden change in radial velocity products.A reference based on analyzing this type synoptic forecast with radar system in future is proposed.
    11  Analysis of a Squall Line in South China on 22 March 2005
    罗建英 廖胜石 梁岱云 马艺 寿绍文
    2006, 32(10):70-75. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.011
    [Abstract](870) [HTML](61) [PDF 2.00 M](766)
    Abstract:
    Based on the observational data,radar echo,auto meteorological station data and NCEP reanalysis data of 1°×1°with 6h interval,a squall line weather event on March 22,2005 is conducted.The weather background,radar echoes,physics fields are diagnosed.The results show that the squall line occurred in the instable region。The outbreak of low level jet(LLJ)at 700hPa level and the core of the LLJ moving eastward quickly are the trigger of the squall line which is formed by the interaction of dry intrusion from mid-troposphere with the strong instability of low level.
    12  Some Climatic Features of Tropical Cyclones Influencing Northern China for Recent 52 Years
    王秀萍 梁军
    2006, 32(10):76-80. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.012
    [Abstract](750) [HTML](63) [PDF 303.94 K](736)
    Abstract:
    Using the data of Tropical Cyclone Yearbooks from 1951 to 2002,intermonthly characteristics,interannual and interdecadal variation,climate incident,oscillation period about tropical cyclones influencing the northern China are analyzed.The results show that the tropical cyclones influencing the northern China exhibit remarkable intermonthly variations.The dominant period is from July to September,especially the peak period is July and August,but there are no tropical cyclones influencing the northern China during January-April and December.A less increasing trend can be found in the interannual timescale,In addition,the linear trend indicates an increase of 3%/10a.No sharp change can be found with the Mann-Kendall method.In the recent 52 years,the tropical cyclones influencing the northern China show remarkable interannual and interdecadal variability.There is remarkable interannual period of 5 years,and interdecadal oscillation periods with 2-to 4-year,10-to 12-year and 20-to 22-year also can be found.
    13  Spatial-Temporal Variation of Annual Mean Temperature in Yunnan Province for Last 44 Years
    姚愚 李晓鹏 闫丽萍 罗园 李卫红 李毅巍
    2006, 32(10):81-87. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.013
    [Abstract](500) [HTML](163) [PDF 433.65 K](680)
    Abstract:
    With the annual mean temperature of 121 meteorological surface observation stations in Yunnan Province from 1961 to 2004,the spatial-temporal features of temperature variations in Yunnan is discussed.From the view of temperature variation of various decades,the fluctuation of temperature is slight in the 1960's decade and 1980's decade.The 1970's decade is the coldest one in the latest four decades.During the 1990's decade,the temperature turns higher gradually and the fluctuation of temperature in 1990's decade is considerable.Since 1980,average linear trend of annual temperature in Yunnan is warming up with 0.24℃ per decade,which is close to the average linear trend of main area of China.Baoshan,Zhongdian and Simao,which locate in the west of Yunnan,take on the fastest warming linear trend in the last 40 years,whereas the temperature's ascending trend of mid Yunnan is the most remarkable in the latest ten years.By using principal component analysis of factor fields,the larger value area of the first eigenvector is the sensitive area to the variation of temperature,and its time series is an index standing for the mean annual temperature variation of the whole province.The positive/negative areas of the second eigenvector correspond the lower/higher value areas of the first eigenvector respectively.In the higher value area of the first eigenvector,the feature of temperature variation possesses the character that the temperature is lower in the former time and higher in the latter time since 1960's decade,and the lower value area of the first eigenvector has reverse character.
    14  Analysis of Non-conventional Observation Characters in a Squall Event
    王莉萍 崔晓东 常英 赵平
    2006, 32(10):88-93. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.014
    [Abstract](794) [HTML](66) [PDF 6.95 M](766)
    Abstract:
    Based on the conventional and non-conventional observation data,the squall event occurring on June 7,2004 in Hengshui of Hebei Province is analyzed.The results show that the low vortex shear line and the cold front are the synoptic systems that caused the squall event.A cloud line is constructed by several convective cloud clusters on the cloud picture.The typical bow echo and adverse wind regions appeared on the map of Doppler radar reflectivity and velocity.By analyzing the cloud picture,lightning location data and Doppler radar echo,a conclusion can be drawn that the three kinds of non-conventional observation data have close relationship to the influence time,change of intensity and moving direction of synoptic system.
    15  Analysis of Drought and Moist Evolution and Circulation Features over the East of Northwest China in Summer
    杨金虎 杨启国 姚玉璧 单红洮
    2006, 32(10):94-101. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.015
    [Abstract](486) [HTML](136) [PDF 503.99 K](634)
    Abstract:
    By using the daily summer(JJA)precipitation data from 33 observational stations in the east of Northwest China from 1960 to 2004,and the reanalysis data of 500hPa height field from NCEP/NACAR,the total precipitation and rainless days are first calculated.According to their features of significant negative correlation,a homogeneous dry-moist index is defined,and then by EOF analysis,the anomaly evolution feature of drought-moist index fields is studied.in addition,the 500hPa height anomaly field compound analysis in drought and moist anomaly is conducted,and the results show that consistent anomaly feature is the main pattern of summer drought-moist index in the east of Northwest China.Drying tendency is significant in the east of Northwest China in recent 45a.In moist years,the main feature of synochronized 500hPa height field is that Xinjiang ridge is weak and East Asia trough is shallow,but in drought years its feature is reverse.The main feature of prophase(December)500hPa height field is that Ural ridge line is lean to west and East Asia trough is shallow in moist years,it is also reverse in drought years.The prophase(December)500hPa height field feature cannot be neglected to forecast drought and moist features of next summer in the east of Northwest China.
    16  Operational Applications of CINRAD Weather Radar Network in Shandong
    王建国 高玉春 朱君鉴 黄磊 罗慧敏 刁秀广
    2006, 32(10):102-106. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.016
    [Abstract](816) [HTML](52) [PDF 1.87 M](639)
    Abstract:
    The real-time mosaic radar products every 6 minutes for all 5 radars in Shandong Province and some radars around Shandong,and applications of these products for remote users are introduced.The movement and evolution of synoptic systems with different scales within the surveillance area can be effectively monitored by using mosaic products.For local severe convective weathers,some useful functions on CINRAD/SA radar PUP,such as,intensive echo center relocating,locally zooming,flash indicating,mouse linking,geographic map-radar products' overlapping,may be realized through remote acquiring,which is quite valuable of guiding precise weather forecast for remote meteorological institutions.On the other hand,it is important of acquiring the products of neighbor radars from Beijing Information Centre,in order to know the synoptic conditions over up-stream and surrounding regions.
    17  Design and Implement of Mobile Meteorological Station in Shenyang
    尹佐臣 张涛 陈力强
    2006, 32(10):107-111. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.017
    [Abstract](624) [HTML](223) [PDF 317.66 K](637)
    Abstract:
    To make special meteorological services in non-fixed locations,the authors propose the concept of mobile meteorological station(MMS)which is composed of mobile radar,vehicle-mounted automatic meteorological station and wireless communication network,introduce the basic configuration of MMS in Shenyang,illustrate system functional design and technological methods based on dual-polarization radar,image registration and CDMA 1X wireless communication of MMS.MMS in Shenyang has widely applicable prospect,its designing idea and technological methods can be used well for reference to the construction of MMS at home and abroad.
    18  Analysis and Application of the Municipal Fire Monitoring Based on AVHRR Data
    王福州 郭魁英 王国斌 石俊峰 孙仲毅 李喜平 孙日丁
    2006, 32(10):112-116. DOI: 10.7519/j.issn.1000-0526.2006.10.018
    [Abstract](684) [HTML](154) [PDF 298.46 K](629)
    Abstract:
    On the basis of the remote sensing data derived from meteorological satellite AVHRR through DVB-S,Hebi area is divided into several sub-areas for identifying fire points according to surface characteristics.By means of statistics and contrasting analysis of the satellite-monitored fire point data and actual fire point data,the refined threshold values in each sub-area at different time are determined.Then the administrative position of the fire points are precisely located by using 1∶50000 scale administrative data set.This method was utilized in the monitoring of straw stalk burning in Hebi area in 2004 and 2005 and obtained very good effect.It provided an important scientific basis for the government to keep abreast of the straw stalk burning situation in the whole city promptly and accurately,and improve the fire monitoring ability and inspecting efficiency as well.

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