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气象:2018,44(3):408-415
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长江江苏段江面雾的特征和预报着眼点
田小毅1,2,朱承瑛1,3,张振东1,2,鲍婧1,2
(1 中国气象局交通气象重点开放实验室,南京 210008 2 江苏省气象服务中心,南京 210008 3 江苏省气象科学研究所,南京 210008)
Characteristics and Forecasting Focus for River Fog in Jiangsu Section of Yangtze River
TIAN Xiaoyi1,2,ZHU Chengying1,3,ZHANG Zhendong1,2,BAO Jing1,2
(1 Key Laboratory of Transportation Meteorology, CMA, Nanjing 210008 2 Jiangsu Meteorological Service Center, Nanjing 210008 3 Jiangsu Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Nanjing 210008)
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投稿时间:2017-04-06    修订日期:2017-12-26
中文摘要: 利用2010—2013年长江江苏段沿线布设的36套自动气象站每分钟1次的能见度、相对湿度、温度、风向和风速等实况监测资料,对江面雾的时空分布特征和气象要素进行了统计分析,结果显示:江面雾主要发生于6、11和1月;主要形成于19时至次日07时,其中02—04时最多,结束于06—12时,持续时间以3~9 h为主。成雾时相对湿度基本在85%以上;主要的温度区间为春季5~19℃、夏季18~26℃、秋季7~23℃、冬季0~11℃;春、夏、秋三季风速都在5 m·s-1以下,冬季风稍大些,甚至在6 m·s-1左右的风速下仍然会生成雾,春季以1~2 m·s-1的NNE—E为主;夏季以0.3~1 m·s-1的NNE—ESE为主;秋季以0.3~2 m·s-1的NNE—NE和E—ESE为主;冬季以1~2 m·s-1的NNE—NE和WNW为主。此外,对出雾时首站的能见度变化进行分析,发现稳定的江面雾形成之前也会形成明显的“象鼻形”先期振荡特征,这一特征给江面雾的预警预报提供了依据。
Abstract:Using the minutely data including visibility, relative humidity, temperature and wind speed of 36 automatic weather stations along the Yangtze River in Jiangsu Province during 2010-2013, the characte ristics of river fogs are analyzed. The results show that river fog mainly occurs in June, November and January, formed from 19:00 BT to the next 07:00 BT, during which the fog is the thickest in 02:00-04:00 BT and gets to end from 06:00 BT to 12:00 BT, so the fog duration is 3-9 h. When fog occurs, relative humidity is 85% or higher, temperature is 5-19℃ in spring, 18-26℃ in summer, 7-23℃ in autumn and 0-11℃ in winter. As for the wind speed, it is below 5 m·s-1 in spring, summer, autumn, and about 6 m·s-1 in winter. Specifically, the fog tends to occur with the wind direction of NNE-E and wind speed 1-2 m·s-1 in spring, the wind direction of NNE-ESE and wind speed 0.3-1 m·s-1 in summer, the wind direction of NNE-NE and E-ESE, wind speed 0.3-2 m·s-1 in autumn, and the wind direction of NNE-NE and WNW, wind speed 1-2 m·s-1 in winter. In addition, by analyzing the visibility changes of the first station in the fog, we found that there are obvious “trunk like” characteristics before river fogs develop. Such features could provide the basis for the operation of early warning and forecasting of river fogs.
文章编号:     中图分类号:P456,457    文献标志码:
基金项目:江苏省气象局科研基金项目(KM201405)、2016年中国气象局小型建设项目“长江黄金水道及近海航运交通气象服务系统建设”和北极阁基金项目(BJG201706)共同资助
引用文本:
田小毅,朱承瑛,张振东,鲍婧,2018.长江江苏段江面雾的特征和预报着眼点[J].气象,44(3):408-415.
TIAN Xiaoyi,ZHU Chengying,ZHANG Zhendong,BAO Jing,2018.Characteristics and Forecasting Focus for River Fog in Jiangsu Section of Yangtze River[J].Meteor Mon,44(3):408-415.