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气象:2016,42(4):472-480
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2015年中国气候主要特征及主要天气气候事件
(国家气候中心,北京 100081)
Climatic Characteristics and Major Meteorological Events over China in 2015
(National Climate Centre, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2016-01-21    修订日期:2016-03-07
中文摘要: 2015年,全国平均气温较常年偏高0.9℃,为1961年以来最高值,华南年平均气温为历史最高,东北、华北和西北为次高值;四季气温均偏高。全国平均降水量648.8 mm,较常年偏多3%;长江中下游大部及广西、新疆等地降水量偏多,西南西部及海南、辽宁等地降水偏少;冬、夏季降水偏少,春季接近常年同期,秋季偏多明显。2015年,南方暴雨过程多,夏季出现南涝北旱,上海、南京等多个城市内涝重;华北、西北东部及辽宁夏秋连旱影响较重;11月江南、华南出现强降雨,秋汛明显;盛夏,新疆出现持续高温天气,但长江中下游地区连续两年出现凉夏;登陆台风偏少,但登陆台风强度强,“彩虹”致灾重。2015年,我国共出现11次大范围、持续性霾过程,11—12月我国中东部雾 霾持续时间长、范围广、污染程度重,11月27日至12月1日华北、黄淮等地的雾 霾天气过程为2015年最严重的一次。
Abstract:The anomaly of annual mean surface air temperature over China in 2015 is 0.9℃, warmer than normal years making the year the warmest since 1961. The annual mean temperature in South China broke the historical record while the regions of Northeast, Northwest and North China has experienced the second warmest year since 1961. The warmer air temperature was not only found in annual mean, but also in all the four seasons. The annual mean precipitation in 2015 in China was 648.8 mm, 3% more than normal. More anomalies of precipitation were observed in most parts of the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River, Guangxi and Xinjiang while less precipitation were seen in the western part of Southwest, Hainan and Liaoning. Seasonal precipitation is less in winter and summer, near normal in spring, but obviously above normal in autumn. There were too many torrential rain processes over the southern part of China, causing the South flooding and the North drought in summer. Urban waterlogging was very heavy in some cities, like Shanghai and Nanjing. However, North China, the eastern part of Northwest, and Liaoning suffered from serious and successive droughts through summer and autumn. In November severe precipitation appeared in South of China. Xinjiang had extremely hot wave in the mid summer, while the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River Basin experienced cooler summer continuously for two years due to more rainfall. Landing typhoons were less but with more powerful strength. For instance, the landing Typhoon of Mujigae caused the severe disasters. There were eleven large scale and persistent haze events over China in 2015. The frequent fog haze events hit the central and eastern China from November to December, and the most serious event occurred in Huanghuai and North China from 27 November to 1 December in 2015.
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基金项目:公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201506001和GYHY201406021)共同资助
引用文本:
廖要明,王凌,王遵娅,叶殿秀,周兵,侯威,王有民,朱晓金,黄大鹏,赵珊珊,钟海玲,王阳,李莹,姜允迪,曾红玲,2016.2015年中国气候主要特征及主要天气气候事件[J].气象,42(4):472-480.
LIAO Yaoming,WANG Ling,WANG Zunya,YE Dianxiu,ZHOU Bing,HOU Wei,WANG Youmin,ZHU Xiaojin,HUANG Dapeng,ZHAO Shanshan,ZHONG Hailing,WANG Yang,LI Ying,JIANG Yundi,ZENG Hongling,2016.Climatic Characteristics and Major Meteorological Events over China in 2015[J].Meteor Mon,42(4):472-480.