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气象:2024,50(2):195-209
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一次强冰雹超级单体风暴双偏振参量特征分析
李芳,刁秀广,魏鸣
(山东省济宁市气象局,济宁 272000;山东省气象台,济南 250031;南京信息工程大学,南京 210044)
Characteristic Analysis of Dual-Polarization Parameters of a Severe Hail Supercell Storm
LI Fang,DIAO Xiuguang,WEI Ming
(Jining Meteorological Office of Shandong Province, Jining 272000;Shandong Meteorological Observatory, Jinan 250031;Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044)
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投稿时间:2022-09-05    修订日期:2023-06-23
中文摘要: 利用济南S波段双偏振多普勒天气雷达资料、章丘探空和地面常规气象观测资料及灾情调查,对2021年7月9日发生在济南章丘的一次特大冰雹超级单体风暴双偏振和微物理结构特征进行了分析。结果表明:冷涡天气背景下,强的垂直风切变和强的对流有效位能,利于超级单体的形成与维持。阵风锋是风暴触发机制,也是风暴长时间维持机制。初始风暴由阵风锋触发,经过合并发展产生超级单体。成熟阶段,风暴西侧与阵风锋交汇区域不断激发新生单体,并与主体合并,风暴长时间维持。风暴顶强辐散是中气旋长时间维持和风暴顶高度较高的关键因子之一。特大冰雹阶段风暴底层右后有明显的入流缺口,其前侧有差分反射率(ZDR)弧,表现为少量大的液态粒子或小的湿冰粒子,入流缺口左侧强反射率因子区对应小的ZDR和小的相关系数,为冰雹降落区。垂直结构上,强上升气流区一侧存在深厚的有界弱回波区,0℃层高度之下分布有ZDR环,有界弱回波区内及上方存在ZDR柱,且高度较高,含有少许偏大的液态或融化的小的冰相粒子。较高的ZDR柱表明风暴内上升气流强盛且高度较高,利于风暴的发展与维持以及冰雹粒子的湿增长。
Abstract:Using the Jinan S-band dual-polarization Doppler weather radar data, Zhangqiu sounding and ground conventional meteorological observation data and disaster investigation, this article analyzes the dual-polarization and microphysical structure characteristics of a hail supercell storm that occurred in Zhangqiu, Jinan on 9 July 2021. The results show that under the background of cold vortex weather, strong vertical wind shear and strong convective available potential energy were conducive to the formation and maintenance of supercell. The gust front was the trigger mechanism of the storm and the long-term maintenance mechanism of the storm. The initial storm was triggered by the gust front and it developed into a supercell through merging. In the mature stage, the intersection area between the west side of the storm and the gust front continuously excited new cells, which merged with the main body, thus the storm maintained for a long time. The strong divergence of storm top was one of the key factors for the long-term maintenance of mesocyclone and the high height of storm top. In the super-large hail stage, there existed a clear inflow gap at the right rear of the storm bottom, and there was a differential reflectivity arc in front of it, manifested as a small amount of large liquid particles or small wet ice particles. The strong reflectivity factor area on the left side of the inflow gap corresponded to small differential reflectivity and small correlation coefficient, which was the hail falling area. In terms of the vertical structure, there was a deep bounded weak echo zone on the side of the strong updraft area, and a differential reflectivity ring was distributed below the height of the 0°C layer. There was a differential reflectivity column in the bounded weak echo zone and above it, and the height was higher with a little larger liquid or melting small ice particles. The higher differential reflectivity column indicates that the updraft in the storm is strong and high, which is benefitical to the development and maintenance of the storm and the wet growth of hail particles.
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基金项目:山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2020MD053、ZR2022MD035、ZR2022MD072、ZR2023MD004)和山东省气象局科研项目(2021sdqxz09、2019sdqxz01、2019sdqxm19)共同资助
引用文本:
李芳,刁秀广,魏鸣,2024.一次强冰雹超级单体风暴双偏振参量特征分析[J].气象,50(2):195-209.
LI Fang,DIAO Xiuguang,WEI Ming,2024.Characteristic Analysis of Dual-Polarization Parameters of a Severe Hail Supercell Storm[J].Meteor Mon,50(2):195-209.