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气象:2024,50(1):115-125
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2023年夏季我国气候异常特征及成因分析
支蓉,高辉,孙冷
(国家气候中心,中国气象局气候研究开放实验室,北京 100081)
Characteristics and Possible Causes of Climate Anomalies over China in Summer 2023
ZHI Rong,GAO Hui,SUN Leng
(Key Laboratory for Climate Prediction Studies, National Climate Centre, CMA, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2023-10-18    修订日期:2023-11-03
中文摘要: 2023年夏季,我国气候特征整体表现为“温高雨少”,区域性、阶段性高温、旱涝等气象灾害明显。降水的空间分布差异显著,主要多雨区位于我国北方,松花江、海河流域出现严重汛情。生成和登陆台风频数均较常年同期偏少,但北上台风却对京津冀等地造成极其严重的雨涝灾害。2023年夏季我国气温为1961年以来历史次高,北方地区暖异常明显,华北、西北等地区阶段性高温热浪尤为突出。华北、东北地区降水偏多是由不同环流系统造成的。其中,华北南部降水异常偏多主要由7月底至8月初一次极为罕见的天气尺度持续性极端降水过程所致,台风杜苏芮和卡努外围环流与异常偏西、偏北的西太平洋副热带高压相配合,再加上太行山东麓的地形效应是其主要原因。盛夏东北东部异常偏南风引导的水汽输送在整个对流层都异常偏强,造成东北北部和东部降水明显偏多,这一异常环流与初夏巴伦支海海冰密集度减小及盛夏西北太平洋海温异常偏暖均有一定关联。
Abstract:In the summer of 2023, the overall climate of China was characterized by high temperature with less rainfall, and the regional and periodic high temperature, droughts, floods and other meteorological disasters occurred frequently. The precipitation displayed remarkable spatial differences across China, with the major rain belt mainly located in northern China. Both the Songhua River Basin and the Haihe River Basin experienced severe flash flooding in middle summer. Both the generated typhoons and the landfall typhoons were less than in the same period in years, but the northward typhoons incurred extremely serious flood disasters in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region. The national summer temperature ranked the second highest since 1961, especially in northern China. Both North China and Northwest China experienced the most intense heat waves. The anomalous excessive precipitation in North China and Northeast China was caused by different circulation systems. For the former, it was mainly caused by a rarely-seen extreme precipitation process from the end of July to early August, during which the strong moisture transport by Typhoon Doksuri and Typhoon Khanun was blocked by a much more westward and northward western Pacific subtropical high combined with the topographic effect of the Taihang Mountains; for the latter, the exceptional southerly water vapor transport in the whole troposphere along the east of Northeast China can be regarded as the direct cause. This abnormal circulation was possibly associated with the decrease in the sea ice concentration in the Barents Sea in early summer and the abnormal warmer sea surface temperature in the Northwest Pacific in middle summer.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金重点项目(42130610)、国家重点研发计划(2017YFC1502300)和国家自然科学基金面上项目(41975088)共同资助
引用文本:
支蓉,高辉,孙冷,2024.2023年夏季我国气候异常特征及成因分析[J].气象,50(1):115-125.
ZHI Rong,GAO Hui,SUN Leng,2024.Characteristics and Possible Causes of Climate Anomalies over China in Summer 2023[J].Meteor Mon,50(1):115-125.