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气象:2023,49(9):1097-1107
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过台湾岛的台风所引发的东南沿海地区的暴雨特征分析
林小红,杨舒楠,王健治,尹丝雨
(福建省灾害天气重点实验室,福州 350007; 福建省气象台,福州 350007;国家气象中心,北京 100081;民航厦门空管站,厦门 361000)
Characteristics of Rainstorm in Southeast Coastal Area Caused by Typhoon Passing Through Taiwan Island
LIN Xiaohong,YANG Shunan,WANG Jianzhi,YIN Siyu
(Fujian Key Laboratory of Hazardous Weather, Fuzhou 350007; Fujian Meteorological Observatory, Fuzhou 350007;National Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081;The Civil Aviation Xiamen Air Traffic Control Station, Xiamen 361000)
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投稿时间:2022-04-24    修订日期:2023-08-02
中文摘要: 利用1961—2020年中国气象局上海台风研究所台风资料和中国台站逐日台风降水资料,对我国东南沿海地区(浙江、福建和广东)过台湾岛台风(以下简称过岛台风)不同量级暴雨的气候特征进行统计分析,并初步探讨造成过岛台风极端降水差异的成因。研究表明:九成过岛台风会给东南沿海地区带来暴雨影响,年均有1.6次过岛台风暴雨事件发生。过岛台风日最大降水量的年际变化有明显增强趋势,特别是自2003年以来暴雨极端事件呈现明显增多增强现象。不同量级日暴雨发生的频次月变化均表现为单峰型,7—9月为高峰季。过岛台风过程日最大降水不同量级发生的频次表明,东南沿海100 mm 以上强降水频次随着降水强度的增加而减少,300 mm以上强降水频次明显减少。空间分布上,东南沿海日暴雨频次呈现由沿海向内陆不均匀快速递减特征。过岛台风暴雨对福建北部沿海地区的影响最为突出,其中福建的柘荣站是暴雨极值中心。利用NCEP再分析资料对两组相似台风引发极端降水差异的大尺度环境对比显示:强降水组的台风中心北侧大风速区导致向岸风较大,在山脉地形作用下,山前具有更强的辐合及深厚的强垂直上升运动,配合更有利的水汽条件,将低空高能高湿水汽送至中高层,降水动力和水汽条件均明显强于弱降水组的台风,从而造成更强的台风暴雨。
Abstract:Based on the typhoon data of Shanghai Typhoon Institute and the daily typhoon precipitation data of national stations of China during 1961-2020, the climatic characteristics of different levels of typhoon precipitation caused by typhoon passing though Taiwan Island in southeast coastal of China including Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong provinces are statistically analyzed, and the causes for the differences in extreme precipitation are discussed.The study results show that 90% of the typhoons passing though Taiwan Island can bring rainstorms to the southeast coastal area of China. There are 1.6 typhoon rainstrom events every year. The interannual variation of the daily maximum precipitation amount of shows an obvious increasing trend. Especially, the rainstrom extreme events have increased significantly since 2003.The variation of monthly frequency of daily precipitation at different levels shows a single peak pattern, and the peak months are from July to September.The occurrence frequency of the daily maximum precipitation at different levels shows that the frequency of extreme precipitation over 100 mm decreases with the increase of precipitation intensity, and the frequency of extreme precipitation over 300 mm decreases obviously. In terms of spatial distribution, the daily rainstorm frequency shows an uneven and rapid decrease from the coastal areas to the inland areas.The rainstorms from the typhoon through Taiwan Island have most prominent impact on the northern coast of Fujian Province, and Zherong Station in Fujian is the extreme rainstorm center. Based on NCEP reanalysis data, the large scale environmental comparison of the difference between the two similar typhoon groups shows that to the heavy precipitation typhoon group, strong wind speed area on the north side of the typhoon center leads to strong onshore winds. With the effect of mountain terrain, there is stronger convergence and very strong deep vertical upward movement, in front of mountains. With better moisture conditions, theupward motion can take the low level high energy water vapor to the middle high levels. The precipitation dynamics and water vapor conditions are significantly stronger than those of the weak precipitation typhoon group, thus resulting in more typhoon rainstorms.
文章编号:     中图分类号:P457    文献标志码:
基金项目:福建省灾害天气重点实验室重大科技专项(2020TF04、2020KX05)、福建省科技厅面上项目(2021J01456)共同资助
引用文本:
林小红,杨舒楠,王健治,尹丝雨,2023.过台湾岛的台风所引发的东南沿海地区的暴雨特征分析[J].气象,49(9):1097-1107.
LIN Xiaohong,YANG Shunan,WANG Jianzhi,YIN Siyu,2023.Characteristics of Rainstorm in Southeast Coastal Area Caused by Typhoon Passing Through Taiwan Island[J].Meteor Mon,49(9):1097-1107.