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气象:2022,48(1):122-128
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2021年10月大气环流和天气分析
黄奕武,董林,刘达,陈博宇
(国家气象中心,北京 100081)
Analysis of the October 2021 Atmospheric Circulation and Weather
HUANG Yiwu,DONG Lin,LIU Da,CHEN Boyu
(National Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2021-11-22    修订日期:2021-12-03
中文摘要: 2021年10月北半球大气环流特征主要表现为:极涡主要呈单极型分布,位置偏离北极点靠近西伯利亚;中高纬地区环流呈5波型分布,500 hPa位势高度场在亚洲东北部至东北太平洋一带为负距平,在北美至北极地区为正距平;副热带高压呈狭长带状分布,几乎环绕北半球;西北太平洋副热带高压较近几年同期范围偏小。10月全国平均降水量为52.1 mm,较常年同期偏多45.4%,为1961年以来历史同期第四多,且分布不均匀;全国平均气温为10.7℃,较常年同期偏高0.4℃。月内有3次主要降水过程,2次中等强度冷空气过程,有4个台风和1个热带低压生成。其中,3—6日主要降水过程由东北冷涡、低空急流和低层切变线共同引起,该过程持续时间长,累计雨量大且极端性强;另外2次主要降水过程分别由2117号台风狮子山和2118号台风圆规造成,使得我国东南至华南沿海地区出现强降水。
Abstract:The main characteristics of the general atmospheric circulation in October 2021 are as follows. The polar vortex presented a unipolar pattern, with location shifting from the North Polar to Siberia. The circulation at 500 hPa showed a five-wave pattern in middle-high latitudes, with negative anomaly of geopotential height over the region from Northeastern Asia to Northeast Pacific, and positive anomaly over the North America to Arctic region. The subtropical high presented a long and narrow strip shape and almost surrounded the Northern Hemisphere. The Northwest Pacific subtropical high was smaller than those in recent years in the same period. The monthly mean precipitation was 52.1 mm, which is 45.4% more than normal, ranking the top 4th since 1961. Moreover, the distribution of the precipitation was unevenly. The monthly mean temperature was 10.7 ℃, 0.4 ℃ higher than normal. Three heavy rainfall processes and two cold air processes occurred in October, while four typhoons and one tropical depress were generated and developed. Among them the first heavy rainfall process was jointly caused by the northeast cold vortex, the low-level jet and the low-layer shear line, and became a long-term, heavy and extreme rainstorm process with a large amount of accumulated precipitation. Another two heavy rainfall processes were produced by Typhoon Lionlock (No.2117) and Kompasu (No.2118), both of which landed on Qionghai City of Hainan Province and brought heavy precipitation to the coastal area of southeastern and southern China.
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFC1506402)资助
引用文本:
黄奕武,董林,刘达,陈博宇,2022.2021年10月大气环流和天气分析[J].气象,48(1):122-128.
HUANG Yiwu,DONG Lin,LIU Da,CHEN Boyu,2022.Analysis of the October 2021 Atmospheric Circulation and Weather[J].Meteor Mon,48(1):122-128.