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气象:2021,47(5):517-528
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江苏龙卷时空分布及风暴形态特征
徐芬,郑媛媛,孙康远
(中国气象局交通气象重点开放实验室,南京 210009;江苏省气象科学研究所,南京 210009;南京气象科技创新研究院,南京 210009)
Characteristics of Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Storm Morphologies of Tornadoes in Jiangsu Province
XU Fen,ZHENG Yuanyuan,SUN Kangyuan
(Key Laboratory of Transportation Meteorology, CMA, Nanjing 210009; Jiangsu Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Nanjing 210009; Nanjing Joint Institute for Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing 210009)
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投稿时间:2020-05-12    修订日期:2020-08-04
中文摘要: 基于江苏气候影响评价文件、重要天气报文、江苏民政部门龙卷灾情记录和其他有关资料,根据“增强藤田级别”龙卷级别分类标准,对2006—2018年13年间江苏龙卷的时空分布、等级分布、天气背景特征和风暴形态特征进行了统计分析。主要结果如下:2006—2018年共记录到27个龙卷日发生龙卷41次,年均3.2次,其中EF2级强龙卷事件发生最多,占比为39%, EF4级龙卷只被记录到一次,为“6·23”阜宁强龙卷。21世纪以来,江苏尚未记录到EF5级极端龙卷事件,而EF0和EF1级的弱龙卷因灾情小可能被忽略,其统计数量可能被明显低估;龙卷主要分布于东部沿海、中部沿江及淮北西部地区。相较过去江苏中部龙卷高发中心有南移趋势,东部沿海地区高发中心则呈现北抬特征,盐城、徐州、扬州依次为龙卷高发城市,宿迁、连云港、常州、镇江四市近年未有龙卷发生;龙卷主要集中在春、夏两季发生,7—8月龙卷发生个数约占全年的90%;发生起始时间为10—20时,约78%的龙卷集中发生于15—20时;约50%的龙卷发生于梅汛期间, 27%为台前龙卷,盐城地区为梅汛期龙卷高发区域,扬州—泰州地区为盛夏副热带高压边缘龙卷高发区域,台前龙卷无明显高发区域;江苏地区超过50%的龙卷产生于镶嵌在多单体风暴系统中的超级单体中气旋内,约30%的龙卷产生于准线性对流系统,与美国孤立对流单体形态易产生龙卷的结果不同的是,我国华东地区(以江苏省为主)产生龙卷的孤立对流单体相对频率最低,13年间只有2个龙卷产生于孤立对流单体,相对频率为5%。
Abstract:Based on the climate impact assessment documents, significant weather reports, tornado disaster records from Jiangsu civil affairs department and other relevant data from 2006 to 2018, the spato-temporal distribution, strength distribution, weather background and storm morphology characteristics of the Jiangsu tornadoes are analyzed according to the “Enhanced Fujita Scale”. The main results show that there were 41 tornadoes recorded in 27 tornadic days during the 13 years (2006-2018) with an average annual tornado of 3.2 times, of which the tornado events at EF2 level occurred the most, accounting for 39%, while the EF4 tornado was only recorded once, referring to the 23 June (6·23) Funing severe tornado. Since the 21st Century, there has been no record of extreme tornado events of EF5 level in Jiangsu Province, while the weak tornadoes of EF0 and EF1 are likely to be ignored due to the weak disaster, so their statistical results may be significantly underestimated. Tornadoes mainly occur in the eastern coastal area, the central coastal area and the western area of the north of the Huaihe River. Compared with the past, the high-risk center of tornado in central Jiangsu has a trend of moving southward, while the high-risk center in the eastern coastal area shows a feature of northward movement. Yancheng, Xuzhou and Yangzhou are the high frequency cities of tornado, but no tornado has happened in Suqian, Lianyungang, Changzhou and Zhenjiang in recent years. Most tornadoes occur in spring and summer, 90% of which are seen in July and August. The onset of tornadoes is from 10:00 BT to 20:00 BT, and 78% of tornado genesises in the diurnal variation are between 15:00 BT and 20:00 BT. About 50% of the tornadoes occur during the Meiyu period, and 27% of them are typhoon tornadoes. Yancheng is the highest incidence area of tornadoes in Meiyu period, and the Yangzhou-Taizhou Region has high incidence of tornadoes in mid-summer. There is no obvious high-risk area of typhoon tornadoes in Jiangsu. More than 50% of tornadoes in Jiangsu are generated in supercell mesocyclone embedded in cluster convective morphology, and about 30% of tornadoes are produced in the quasi-linear convective system convective morphology. Contrast to high frequency of tornadoes produced by the discrete cells in the United States, the possibility of tornadoes generated from discrete cells in East China (mainly in Jiangsu Province) is the lowest, and only two tornadoes (less than 5%) were generated in discrete cells in the past 13 years.
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFC1506103)、中国铁路总公司重大课题(K2018T007)、江苏省社会发展项目(BE2017776)和江苏省气象局面上项目(KM202007)共同资助
引用文本:
徐芬,郑媛媛,孙康远,2021.江苏龙卷时空分布及风暴形态特征[J].气象,47(5):517-528.
XU Fen,ZHENG Yuanyuan,SUN Kangyuan,2021.Characteristics of Spatio-Temporal Distribution and Storm Morphologies of Tornadoes in Jiangsu Province[J].Meteor Mon,47(5):517-528.