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气象:2021,47(2):133-142
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云南小时降水的时空分布变化研究
苏锦兰,张万诚,宋金梅,徐安伦
(中国气象局大理山地气象野外科学试验基地,大理 671003;大理国家气候观象台,大理 671003;云南省气象科学研究所,昆明 650034;云南大理机场气象台,大理 671003)
Study on Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Hourly Precipitation in Yunnan Province
SU Jinlan,ZHANG Wancheng,SONG Jinmei,XU Anlun
(Dali Mountain Meteorological Field Experiment Base, CMA, Yunnan Province, Dali 671003; Dali National Climate Observatory, Yunnan Province, Dali 671003; Yunnan Research Institute of Meteorology, Kunming 650034; Meteorological Observatory of Dali Airport, Yunnan Province, Dali 671003)
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投稿时间:2019-10-14    修订日期:2020-12-31
中文摘要: 利用2005—2018年125个国家级台站小时降水观测数据研究云南小时降水时空分布特征。结果表明:云南年总降水量、不同持续时间降水量、极端强降水量及降水日变化空间分布差异很大。年降水量自西北向南增加,雨强自北向南增强,降水时长西部大于东部、南部略大于北部,年降水量受降水时长和雨强共同影响,降水时长影响最强,雨强影响较弱,这种特征在滇西北最突出,但滇东北的降水量与雨强相关更好。云南大部夜雨量多于昼雨量,滇东北和北部边缘夜雨特征最显著;降水日变化特征在云南北部为夜间单峰,西部边缘为清晨单峰,中部为夜间与午后峰值相当的双峰,南部也为夜间和午后双峰,但南部不同区域间主峰和次峰出现时间不同。云南南部降水贡献以短、中历时降水为主,北部则以长、超长历时降水为主。云南短时强降水发生次数的空间分布表现为自西北向东南增加;年发生站次数具有增加趋势,日变化特征为显著单峰,多在傍晚至入夜出现,且极端短时强降水更易在凌晨出现。这些小时降水时空分布特征很大程度上代表了低纬高原地区的降水特征。由于低值天气系统多影响低纬高原中北部,热带天气系统多影响南部,且低纬高原地形复杂,局地热力条件差异明显,这些因素造成该区域小时降水时空分布特征差异显著。
Abstract:Based on the hourly precipitation data of 125 national stations from 2005 to 2018, the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of hourly precipitation in Yunnan were studied. The results show that the spatial distributions of annual total precipitation, different duration precipitation, extremely severe precipitation and diurnal variation of precipitation are significantly different. The annual rainfall increases from northwest to south, and intensity enhances from north to south. The rainfall duration in west is more than in the east, and that in south is slightly more than in the north. The annual rainfall is affected commonly by rainfall duration and intensity. The influence of duration is stronger than that of intensity, especially in northwest Yunnan, but the rainfall in northeast Yunnan has better correlation with intensity. Most areas of Yunnan receive more rainfall at night than in the daytime, especially in northeast and northern margin of Yunnan. The diurnal variation of precipitation features a single peak at night in the northern part, a single peak in early morning in the western edge, double peaks at night and in the afternoon in the central and southern part, but the occurrence times of major peak and secondary peak are different in southern part. The precipitation southern Yunnan is mainly from the short and medium duration precipitations, while that in the north is mainly from long and ultra-long duration precipitations. Times of short-time severe precipitation increase from northwest to southeast, and its annual change has an increasing trend. Its daily distribution shows a significant single peak from dusk to night, but extreme short-time severe precipitation is more likely to occur in the early hours of the morning. These spatio-temporal characteristics of hourly precipitation largely represent the characteristics of the low-latitude plateau. The spatial distribution difference of hourly precipitation characteristics is related to the weather system. The low-value weather system mostly affects the central and northern part of the low-latitude plateau, while the southern part is mostly affected by tropical weather system. Moreover, the topography is complex, and the local thermal conditions are greatly distinct. All these factors contribute to the significant differences in the spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of hourly precipitation in this region.
文章编号:     中图分类号:P426    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41765003、41665005和42075013)和中国气象局省所科技创新发展项目(SCX201919)共同资助
引用文本:
苏锦兰,张万诚,宋金梅,徐安伦,2021.云南小时降水的时空分布变化研究[J].气象,47(2):133-142.
SU Jinlan,ZHANG Wancheng,SONG Jinmei,XU Anlun,2021.Study on Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Hourly Precipitation in Yunnan Province[J].Meteor Mon,47(2):133-142.