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气象:2021,47(1):1-10
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用对流-辐射平衡理论理解对流云的外观表现
许健民
(国家卫星气象中心,北京 100081)
Appearance of Convective Clouds Explained by Radiative-Convective Equilibrium
XU Jianmin
(National Satellite Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2020-05-06    修订日期:2020-06-11
中文摘要: 文章展示卫星云图和飞机航拍照片上的云,试图把云的外观表现与大气的三维空间结构、运动,以及可能存在的内在物理过程联系起来进行分析,用对流-辐射平衡理论理解和解释对流云的外观表现。在未受扰动的情况下,层状云在云图上表现松散。动画显示,不同高度上的云,随其所在层面上的风水平飘荡,走向各不相同。当深对流发生时,云剧烈地翻滚,不同高度上的气流,被对流活动联系在一起。有组织的深对流虽然只在很少的地方发生,却是维持对流层大气热量平衡必须存在的。对流活动把太阳照射在地面上多余的热量散布到对流层大气的内部,抵消了对流层里长波辐射的冷却效应,保持了对流层大气内部的热量平衡。
Abstract:This paper shows cloud pictures taken from satellites and aircrafts, trying to link the appearance of the clouds with the three dimensional structure, motion and physical processes that possible exist in the atmosphere by radiative-convective equilibrium theory. In undisturbed atmosphere prevailing horizontal motion, stratus clouds are more or less few and scattered. They spread separately in different layers drifting with the prevailing winds of the layers. On the other hand, deep convection clouds roll in which air flow in different layers are twisted and linked. Although convections happen only in relative small area,they must exist and take important actions in energy balance in the troposphere. The upward energy transportation by convective clouds compensates the heat release by the long wave radiation in the troposphere,and maintains the energy balance in the troposphere.
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引用文本:
许健民,2021.用对流-辐射平衡理论理解对流云的外观表现[J].气象,47(1):1-10.
XU Jianmin,2021.Appearance of Convective Clouds Explained by Radiative-Convective Equilibrium[J].Meteor Mon,47(1):1-10.