###
气象:2020,46(7):971-981
本文二维码信息
码上扫一扫!
干旱及灌溉对冬小麦根系和产量的影响研究
马青荣,刘荣花,胡程达,王红振,余辉,王艳玲
(中国气象局·河南省农业气象保障与应用技术重点开放实验室,郑州 450003; 河南省气象科学研究所,郑州 450003; 郑州市气象局,郑州 450003)
Impacts of Drought and Irrigation on Root and Yield of Winter Wheat
MA Qingrong,LIU Ronghua,HU Chengda,WANG Hongzhen,YU Hui,WANG Yanling
(Henan Key Laboratory of Agrometeorological Support and Applied Technique, CMA, Zhengzhou 450003; Henan Institute of Meteorological Science, Zhengzhou 450003; Zhengzhou Meteorological Bureau, Zhengzhou 450003)
摘要
图/表
参考文献
相似文献
本文已被:浏览 75次   下载 47
投稿时间:2019-03-04    修订日期:2020-02-09
中文摘要: 在郑州农业气象试验站开展不同程度干旱、灌溉试验,研究了不同水分条件对冬小麦根系活力、形态及产量的影响。结果表明,干旱条件下,冬小麦根系活力和根直径均有明显的降低,根长有明显增加,土壤下层所占根系总体积比例增大,且随着发育期的推进,下层根系所占比例呈现增大的趋势,水分利用效率有明显提高;随着干旱程度的增加,上述变化趋势更加明显。在灌溉量相同的情况下,越冬期灌溉,有利于冬小麦根系活力和根直径增加,但不利于根系的向下伸展;返青期和拔节期灌溉有利于根系向下伸展、水分利用效率提高、理论产量增加,但不利于根系活力和直径的增加;拔节期灌溉,可适当增大灌溉量,减少灌溉次数,以提高水分利用效率。综合根系形态和活力、水分利用效率及产量,在冬小麦干旱持续发生条件下,在返青期、孕穗期灌水600 m3·hm-2左右,可根据干旱程度适当增减灌水量,重旱条件下适当增加灌水次数,少量多灌缓解旱情,而重大干旱年份灌水困难条件下可只在拔节期灌水600 m3·hm-2,以实现产量的减损和节水效果。
Abstract:By carrying out different degrees of drought, rehydration test at Zhengzhou Agricultural Meteorological Experimental Station, we studied the effects of different water conditions on the root vigor morphology and yield of winter wheat, to establish an optimized irrigation system for winter wheat in Henan Province, improve water use efficiency and achieve the goal of water saving and yield increasing. The results showed that under drought conditions, the root vigor and stem diameter of winter wheat decreases significantly, but the root length increases significantly, and the proportion of lower soil roots volume increases. In addition, with the development of the growth stages, the proportion of the lower soil roots volume increases, and the water use efficiency improves significantly. Along with the increase of drought degree, the above trend is more obvious. In the case of same amount of water recovery, overwintering irrigation is beneficial to the increase of root vigor and root diameter of winter wheat, but unfavorable for roots to extend downward. In the greening and jointing stages, irrigation is good for the roots stretching down, water use efficiency, grain weight and theoretical increase of yield, but not conducive to the increase of root vigor and diameter. For the purpose of improving water use efficiency, it is appropriate to increase irrigation volume and reduce the times of irrigation. Comprehensive analysis of root morphology and vitality, water use efficiency and yield shows that under the condition of persistent drought in winter wheat, irrigation is about 600 m3·hm-2 at the turning green stage and booting stage, so the amount of irrigation can be increased or decreased appropriately according to the degree of drought. Irrigation times can be increased appropriately under severe drought conditions. In severe drought years, under difficult irrigation conditions, only 600 m3·hm-2 can be irrigated at jointing stage to achieve the loss reduction of yield and water saving effect.
文章编号:     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:中国气象局农业气象保障与应用技术重点开放实验室科学研究基金项目(AMF201501)和公益性行业(气象)科研专项(GYHY201506001-3、GYHY201106042)共同资助
引用文本:
马青荣,刘荣花,胡程达,王红振,余辉,王艳玲,2020.干旱及灌溉对冬小麦根系和产量的影响研究[J].气象,46(7):971-981.
MA Qingrong,LIU Ronghua,HU Chengda,WANG Hongzhen,YU Hui,WANG Yanling,2020.Impacts of Drought and Irrigation on Root and Yield of Winter Wheat[J].Meteor Mon,46(7):971-981.