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气象:2020,46(6):863-872
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2020年3月大气环流和天气分析
周晓敏,张涛
(国家气象中心,北京 100081)
Analysis of the March 2020 Atmospheric Circulation and Weather
ZHOU Xiaomin,ZHANG Tao
(National Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2020-04-29    修订日期:2020-05-08
中文摘要: 2020年3月大气环流的主要特征是极涡呈单极偏心亚洲分布,强度偏强;中高纬环流呈3波型,东亚槽偏浅;西太平洋副热带高压偏强,南支槽强度与常年平均相当。影响我国冷空气总体多而不强,致3月大部地区显著偏暖,全国平均气温为6.1℃,较常年同期(4.1℃)偏高2.0℃,有58个站最高气温破历史同期极值;弱冷空气频繁渗透南下配合南支槽活动致江南华南多连阴雨,全国平均降水量为35.0 mm,较常年同期(29.5 mm)偏多18.4%。月内共出现3次较强冷空气过程,配合前期偏暖背景,有91个站出现日极端降温事件。南方地区发生7次大范围降雨过程,其中3次伴随有明显的强对流天气过程,多省遭受风雹袭击,局部地区受灾较重。此外,北方地区出现4次沙尘天气过程;四川东部、陕西南部、云南发生干旱。
Abstract:The main characteristics of the general atmospheric circulation in March 2020 are as follows. One polar vortex center was located towards Asia and stronger than usual. The circulation at middle-high latitudes of the Eurasia showed a three-wave pattern, and the East Asian trough was shallow. The Western Pacific subtropical high was stronger than the climatological normal, while the Bay of Bengal trough was equal to usual. Cold airs that affected China were generally frequent but not strong, causing a significant warming in most areas in March. The monthly mean temperature was 6.1℃, higher than normal (4.1℃) by 2℃, and the highest temperature observed at 58 stations broke the historical extreme values. In addition, weak cold air frequently penetrated southwards and cooperated with the activities of the Bay of Bengal trough, resulting in continuous rainy weather in southern China. The monthly mean precipitation amount across China was 35.0 mm, more than the normal by 18.4%. Three nationwide strong cold air processes happened in this month. Under the warmer background in the previous period, 91 stations experienced daily extreme drops in temperature. There were seven rainfall processes in the southern region, three of which were accompanied by obvious severe convective weather. Several provinces were attacked by severe thunderstorms and hail disaster. In addition, four sand-dust weather events occurred in northern China, while severe droughts were found in the east of Sichuan, southern Shaanxi and Yunnan provinces.
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFC1502003)资助
引用文本:
周晓敏,张涛,2020.2020年3月大气环流和天气分析[J].气象,46(6):863-872.
ZHOU Xiaomin,ZHANG Tao,2020.Analysis of the March 2020 Atmospheric Circulation and Weather[J].Meteor Mon,46(6):863-872.