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气象:2020,46(5):603-617
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2019年7月3日辽宁开原龙卷灾害现场调查及其所揭示的龙卷演变过程
张涛,关良,郑永光,陈传雷,才奎志,李得勤,崔胜权,吴云,张小玲,杨波,蓝渝
(国家气象中心,北京 100081; 辽宁省气象灾害监测预警中心,沈阳 110052; 沈阳中心气象台,沈阳 110052; 铁岭市气象局,辽宁铁岭 112600; 开原市气象局,辽宁开原 112300)
Damage Survey of the 3 July 2019 Kaiyuan Tornado in Liaoning Province and Its Evolution Revealed by Disaster
ZHANG Tao,GUAN Liang,ZHENG Yongguang,CHEN Chuanlei,CAI Kuizhi,LI Deqin,CUI Shengquan,WU Yun,ZHANG Xiaoling,YANG Bo,LAN Yu
(National Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081; Liaoning Meteorological Disaster Monitoring and Warning Center, Shenyang 110052; Shenyang Central Meteorological Observatory, Shenyang 110052; Tieling Meteorological Office, Liaoning, Tieling 112600; Kaiyuan Meteorological Station, Liaoning, Kaiyuan 112300)
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投稿时间:2019-08-15    修订日期:2019-12-23
中文摘要: 2019年7月3日,辽宁省铁岭开原市发生了一次具有详细视频记录的强龙卷灾害。基于详细的现场调查和视频资料,得出了该次龙卷的生命史、发生时间、路径、灾害宽度和强度分布,发现龙卷强度的减弱或加强变化与密集高楼和空旷田野区等下垫面状况明显相关联。综合评估本次龙卷最大强度为中国龙卷强度等级的四级(相当于美国的EF4级),但四级灾害点分布范围非常小,灾害分布宽度和EF4级灾害点范围都显著小于2016年江苏阜宁EF4级龙卷。钢筋混凝土框架结构的居民小区楼房在至少EF3级强度的龙卷风袭击后保持主体结构完好,而大型钢架厂房对龙卷灾害的防御能力远差于居民小区。强龙卷所经地区多为旷野和厂房,受影响人员较少,且龙卷发生时视野极佳,这是该次龙卷没有造成更大灾情的重要原因。由于下垫面状况和致灾机制的复杂性,风灾强度估计必然存在一定的不确定性。
Abstract:On July 3, 2019, a violent tornado, which was recorded by video in detail, occurred in Kaiyuan City, Tieling, Liaoning Province. Based on the detailed damage survey and video data, this paper presents the lifecycle, occurrence time, path, disaster width and intensity distribution of the tornado. It is found that the weakening or strengthening of the tornado intensity was significantly related to the underlying surface conditions of dense high buildings and open field areas. According to the comprehensive assessment, the maximum intensity of this tornado is Level 4 (equivalent to EF4 in the United States), but the distribution range of the Level 4 disaster was very small, and the disaster distribution width and the range of Level 4 disaster were significantly smaller than the EF4 tornado in Funing, Jiangsu Province in 2016. The main structure of residential buildings with reinforced concrete frame structure remained almost intact after striking of the tornado with EF3 intensity at least, while the defense ability of large scale steel frame plant to tornado disaster was far worse than that of residential buildings. The areas through which the powerfull tornado passed are mostly wilderness and factories. Fewer people were affected and there were good views when the tornado occurred, which is an important reason why the tornado did not cause more serious disasters. Due to the complexity of underlying surface conditions and disaster mechanism, there must be some uncertainty in the estimation of the tornado strength.
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFC1507504、2017YFC1502003)和国家自然科学基金项目(41375051)共同资助
引用文本:
张涛,关良,郑永光,陈传雷,才奎志,李得勤,崔胜权,吴云,张小玲,杨波,蓝渝,2020.2019年7月3日辽宁开原龙卷灾害现场调查及其所揭示的龙卷演变过程[J].气象,46(5):603-617.
ZHANG Tao,GUAN Liang,ZHENG Yongguang,CHEN Chuanlei,CAI Kuizhi,LI Deqin,CUI Shengquan,WU Yun,ZHANG Xiaoling,YANG Bo,LAN Yu,2020.Damage Survey of the 3 July 2019 Kaiyuan Tornado in Liaoning Province and Its Evolution Revealed by Disaster[J].Meteor Mon,46(5):603-617.