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气象:2020,46(4):547-555
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2019年中国气候主要特征及主要天气气候事件
李莹,曾红玲,王国复,王遵娅,陈鲜艳,邹旭恺,石帅,姜允迪,赵琳,周兵,崔童,周星妍,孙劭,王有民,朱晓金,代潭龙,张颖娴,蔡雯悦,钟海玲,郭艳君,柳艳菊,丁婷,支蓉
(国家气候中心,北京 100081)
Climatic Characteristics and Major Meteorological Events over China in 2019
LI Ying,ZENG Hongling,WANG Guofu,WANG Zunya,CHEN Xianyan,ZOU Xukai,SHI Shuai,JIANG Yundi,ZHAO Lin,ZHOU Bing,CUI Tong,ZHOU Xingyan,SUN Shao,WANG Youmin,ZHU Xiaojin,DAI Tanlong,ZHANG Yingxian,CAI Wenyue,ZHONG Hailing,GUO Yanjun,LIU Yanju,DING Ting,ZHI Rong
(National Climate Centre, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2020-02-20    修订日期:2020-03-21
中文摘要: 2019年我国气候总体呈现暖湿特征。全国年平均气温较常年同期偏高0.79℃,为1951年以来连续第五暖年,四季气温均偏高,春、秋季明显偏暖;年降水量为645.5 mm,较常年同期偏多2.5%,冬、春、夏季降水偏多,秋季偏少。华南前汛期开始早、结束晚,为1961年以来最长前汛期,雨量为1961年以来次多;西南雨季开始和结束均偏晚,雨量偏少;入梅晚、出梅早,梅雨量偏少;华北雨季开始晚,结束与常年一致,雨量偏少;东北雨季开始早、结束晚,雨量偏多;华西秋雨开始早、结束晚,雨量偏多。2019年,台风生成多,登陆强度总体偏弱,仅台风利奇马灾损重;暴雨洪涝、干旱、强对流、低温冷冻害和雪灾、沙尘暴等气象灾害均偏轻。
Abstract:The general feature of China’s climate in 2019 was warm and wet. The annual mean temperature was 0.79℃ higher than normal, becoming the fifth warmest year since 1951. The temperatures in all the four seasons were above normal, and obviously warmer in spring and autumn. The annual mean precipitation over China was 645.5 mm with 2.5% above normal. The seasonal precipitations in winter, spring and summer were above normal, but below normal in autumn. The pre rainy season in South China started earlier and ended later than normal, resulting in the longest rainy period and the second largest amount of precipitation since 1961. However, the onset and end of the rainy season in Southwest China were both later than the climatological dates, and the precipitation amount was deficient there. The Meiyu season started later but ended earlier than normal, leading to less precipitation during the rainy period. The rainy season in North China started later and ended at the time near normal, so the rainfall was less. Both the autumn rain in West China and the rainy 〖JP2〗season in Northeast China started early but ended late, contributing more rainfall. In 2019, the generated typhoons were more than normal, but the landing typhoons were not so many, of which only “Lekima” brought serious damages. As for other meteorological disasters, such as rainstorm, floods, droughts, severe convection, cold freezing and snow disaster as well as sand dust storms, were all mild relatively.
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基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2018YFC1509007 02)和国家自然科学基金项目(41701103)共同资助
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李莹,曾红玲,王国复,王遵娅,陈鲜艳,邹旭恺,石帅,姜允迪,赵琳,周兵,崔童,周星妍,孙劭,王有民,朱晓金,代潭龙,张颖娴,蔡雯悦,钟海玲,郭艳君,柳艳菊,丁婷,支蓉,2020.2019年中国气候主要特征及主要天气气候事件[J].气象,46(4):547-555.
LI Ying,ZENG Hongling,WANG Guofu,WANG Zunya,CHEN Xianyan,ZOU Xukai,SHI Shuai,JIANG Yundi,ZHAO Lin,ZHOU Bing,CUI Tong,ZHOU Xingyan,SUN Shao,WANG Youmin,ZHU Xiaojin,DAI Tanlong,ZHANG Yingxian,CAI Wenyue,ZHONG Hailing,GUO Yanjun,LIU Yanju,DING Ting,ZHI Rong,2020.Climatic Characteristics and Major Meteorological Events over China in 2019[J].Meteor Mon,46(4):547-555.