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气象:2020,46(2):245-256
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近20年美国龙卷探测研究进展——对我国龙卷风研究的启示
李峰,李柏,唐晓文,张林,李瑞义
(中国气象局气象探测中心,北京 100081;南京大学大气科学学院,南京 210089)
Advances in Tornado Detection in the United States in Recent 20 Years—Inspiration to the Study of Tornadoes in China
LI Feng,LI Bai,TANG Xiaowen,ZHANG Lin,LI Ruiyi
(CMA Meteorological Observation Centre, Beijing 100081;School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210089)
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投稿时间:2018-12-17    修订日期:2019-05-16
中文摘要: 对美国近20年龙卷探测雷达技术和观测研究进行了文献调研,文献表明美国龙卷探测雷达研制目标主要为实现快速扫描、获取高时空分辨率和高精度的资料,目的基本达到,雷达体扫时间达到10秒级更新,在雷达近距离范围内分辨率可达到10 m,甚至更低,这些都使得采集龙卷精细化结构和细致连续演变过程成为可能。美国雷达发展采用多种技术体制和扫描策略并进,双极化、相控阵、大气成像等技术方面不断改进与应用,效果良好。基于先进雷达,美国进行了大量的龙卷观测试验,取得了丰富成果,对龙卷的结构和演变规律刻画得越来越精细和准确。许多成果已经转化为概念模型,形成重要的龙卷监测与预报指标、预警信号,并在业务中实施,提高了龙卷预警能力。高频次高精度的龙卷雷达探测资料的数值模式应用也明显缩短了资料同化周期,同时提高了对龙卷等对流尺度系统的模拟能力。参照美国的成功经验,我国应汲取其技术成果,尽快选定雷达发展技术体制,加快业务雷达技术升级和高性能龙卷探测雷达研制,组织龙卷科学观测试验,采集龙卷精细数据,开展科学研究,探索中国的龙卷结构和活动规律,为构建龙卷监测预警业务提供基础的科学支撑。
Abstract:This paper investigates the tornado detection radar technology and observation research in the United States in the past 20 years. The literature shows that the development targets of the tornado detection radar in the United States are mainly to achieve fast scanning, high spatial temporal resolution and high precision data acquisition. The purpose has been basically achieved. The volume scanning time of the radar is up to 10 s and the radar is updated. In close range, the resolution can reach 10 meters or even lower, which makes it possible to collect the fine structure and detailed continuous evolution of tornadoes. The development of radar in the United States adopts a variety of technical systems and scanning strategies, and the dual polarization, phased array, atmospheric imaging and other technologies are constantly improved and applied, with good results. Based on advanced radar, the United States has carried out a large number of tornado observation experiments, achieving rich results. The structure and evolution of tornadoes are described more and more precisely and accurately. Many achievements have been transformed into conceptual models, forming important tornado monitoring and forecasting indicators, early warning signals, and implemented in operations, improving the tornado early warning capability. The application of high frequency and high precision numerical models for tornado radar data has also significantly shortened the data assimilation period and improved the simulation ability of convective scale systems such as tornadoes. Referring to the successful experience of the United States, China should draw on its technical achievements, select the technical system for radar development as soon as possible, speed up the upgrading of operational radar technology and the development of high performance tornado detection radar, organize tornado scientific observation experiments, collect fine tornado data, carry out scientific research, and explore the structure and activity regularity of tornadoes in China, providing a scientific support for the construction of tornado monitoring and warning.
文章编号:     中图分类号:P412    文献标志码:
基金项目:国家重点研究计划(2018YFC1506103)资助
引用文本:
李峰,李柏,唐晓文,张林,李瑞义,2020.近20年美国龙卷探测研究进展——对我国龙卷风研究的启示[J].气象,46(2):245-256.
LI Feng,LI Bai,TANG Xiaowen,ZHANG Lin,LI Ruiyi,2020.Advances in Tornado Detection in the United States in Recent 20 Years—Inspiration to the Study of Tornadoes in China[J].Meteor Mon,46(2):245-256.