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气象:2020,46(2):169-178
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安徽省南部两次冻雨天气过程对比分析
王传辉,姚叶青,苗开超,姚镇海,刘承晓,周建平
(安徽省公共气象服务中心,合肥 230031)
Contrastive Analysis of Two Freezing Rain Processes in Southern Anhui Province
WANG Chuanhui,YAO Yeqing,MIAO Kaichao,YAO Zhenhai,LIU Chengxiao,ZHOU Jianping
(Anhui Public Meteorological Service Center, Hefei 230031)
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投稿时间:2018-07-22    修订日期:2019-12-30
中文摘要: 基于逐时气象观测资料和一日4次ERA Interim再分析资料对2018年1月4—7日(第一次过程)和24—27日(第二次过程)安徽省南部(简称皖南)两次冻雨过程中冻雨分布、时间演变及环流特征进行分析,结果表明:通过自动气象观测仪器的风速突然降为0 m·s-1、风向固定不动,可大致推测出冻雨出现时间,比人工观测到冻雨出现时间早。两次冻雨天气均是在准静止锋天气下出现的,但导致冻雨形成的机制不同。第一次过程为典型的“冰相融化”机制,第二次过程为典型的“过冷暖雨”机制。东亚大陆近地面冷高压使两次冻雨天气中皖南处在东北气流之下,其带来的冷温度平流形成近地面到地面的冷垫,而750 hPa高度附近南支槽槽前暖湿气流带来暖温度平流是融化层或逆温层维持和发展的主要原因。当高空温度层结满足冻雨出现条件时,地面0℃线的位置会直接影响冻雨出现的范围。
Abstract:The freezing rain distribution, time evolution and circulation characteristics of the two freezing rain processes that occurred in southern Anhui Province from 4 to 7, and from 24 to 27 in January 2018 were analyzed based on the daily observation data and ERA Interim reanalysis data collected four times a day. The results showed that the onset time of the freezing rain can be estimated approximately by the sudden drop of wind speed to 0 m·s-1 and the fixed wind direction from the automatic meteorological stations, which is earlier than human observation. The two processes appeared in the condition of quasi static weather, but the mechanism for their formation were different. The process during 4-7 January 2018 was of typical “ice melting” mechanism, while the process during 24-27 belonged to typical “super cooled warm rain” mechanism. The surface cold high in the East Asian Continent made the south of Anhui controlled by the northeastern wind during the two freezing rain processes. The cold advection of the northeastern wind developed a cold cushion from the near surface to the ground, and the warm advection from the warm wet air in front of the southern branch trough near 750 hPa was the main cause for the main tenance and development of the melting or inversion layer. So, when vertical distribution of high altitude temperature satisfies the condition for freezing rain, the surface location of 0℃ directly affects the range of freezing rain.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41805060)资助
引用文本:
王传辉,姚叶青,苗开超,姚镇海,刘承晓,周建平,2020.安徽省南部两次冻雨天气过程对比分析[J].气象,46(2):169-178.
WANG Chuanhui,YAO Yeqing,MIAO Kaichao,YAO Zhenhai,LIU Chengxiao,ZHOU Jianping,2020.Contrastive Analysis of Two Freezing Rain Processes in Southern Anhui Province[J].Meteor Mon,46(2):169-178.