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气象:2019,45(9):1213-1226
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2017年盛夏湖南持续性暴雨过程的水汽输送和收支特征分析
陈红专,叶成志,陈静静,罗植荣
(湖南省怀化市气象局,怀化 418000; 湖南省气象台,长沙 410007)
Analysis of Water Vapor Transport and Budget During Persistent Heavy Rainfall over Hunan Province in June 2017
CHEN Hongzhuan,YE Chengzhi,CHEN Jingjing,LUO Zhirong
(Huaihua Meteorological Office of Hunan Province, Huaihua 418000; Hunan Meteorological Observatory, Changsha 410007)
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投稿时间:2018-04-19    修订日期:2019-04-12
中文摘要: 利用NCEP/NCAR再分析资料,首先分析了2017年6月下旬至7月初湖南持续性暴雨天气过程的环流背景和大尺度水汽输送特征,然后引入NOAA的轨迹模式HYSPLIT,分阶段定量分析了暴雨的水汽输送特征以及区域水汽收支情况。结果表明:天气系统的有效配置和稳定维持是强降雨持续的主要原因,持续性暴雨与全球范围的水汽输送和水汽辐合相联系,低空急流的演变和进退与暴雨落区和强度的演变关系密切。影响此次强降水过程的水汽通道主要有三支,第一支由索马里越赤道急流经孟加拉湾和我国西南地区输入暴雨区,第二支由印度洋中东部越赤道气流经孟加拉湾南部和南海北部输入暴雨区,第三支由来自南半球的越赤道气流自南海南部一路北上输入暴雨区,第三阶段还有一支水汽由赤道西太平洋穿越菲律宾进入南海后再北上输入暴雨区。过程第一、二阶段的水汽输送主要来自孟加拉湾,其次是南海,第三阶段来自孟加拉湾和南海(包括西太平洋)的水汽输送各占一半。受地形影响,孟加拉湾通道的水汽主要输送至暴雨区700 hPa,其他来自低纬洋面的通道水汽主要输送到850 hPa及以下各层。暴雨区水汽输入主要来自南边界和西边界,且主要由低层输入暴雨区,以水平水汽通量辐合的形式在暴雨区上空低层大量汇聚,经由强烈的垂直上升运动输送至对流层中高层积累和凝结,从而导致降水的产生,降水的强弱与边界水汽输入和区域水汽辐合的强弱变化一致。
Abstract:Using the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, the circulation background and the large scale water vapor transport characteristics of a rarely seen persistent heavy rainfall that occurred in Hunan Province in late June to early July 2017 was analyzed first and then the trajectory model was used to simulate the trajectory of the air mass. The characteristics of water vapor transport and the regional water vapor budget were quantitatively analyzed according to the three stages of rainfall process. The results showed that the effective disposition and stable maintenance of the weather system were the main causes for the persistence of heavy rainfall. Persistent heavy rainfall was linked with global water vapor transport and convergence, and the evolution of low level jet directly affected the rainfall area and intensity of heavy rain. There were mainly three water vapor passages corridors to the heavy rain process. The first was the Somali jet stream through the Bay of Bengal and Southwest China into the heavy rain area, the second was the cross equatorial flow from the Southern Hemisphere of central and eastern Indian Ocean through the Bay of Bengal and northern South China Sea into the heavy rain area, and the third was the cross equatorial flow through South China Sea into the heavy rain area. In the third stage, there was another passage from the equatorial Pacific across the Philippines into the South China Sea and then into heavy rain area. During the first two stages, the water vapor transportation was mainly from the Bay of Bengal, and then from the South China Sea, and in the third stage, the water vapor from the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea (including the Western Pacific) were about equal. Affected by the terrain, the water vapor from the Bay of Bengal was mainly transported to the storm zone at 700 hPa, and the water vapor from other passages was mainly transported to the 850 hPa and the lower levels. The water vapor transportation came mainly from the low level of southern and western boundaries which converged in the form of horizontal water vapor flux convergence over the low level of the rainstorm area, and was transported to the middle and upper troposphere through strong vertical ascending movement,condensing and resulting in precipitation. The intensity of precipitation was well related to the strength of the water vapor inflow on the boundaries and the regional water vapor convergence.
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基金项目:中国气象局气象预报业务关键技术发展专项(YBGJXM-2017-1A)、湖南省气象局重点项目(XQKJ16A001)、湖南省气象局预报员专项(XQKJ19C004)和中国气象局预报员专项(CMAYBY2018-051)共同资助
引用文本:
陈红专,叶成志,陈静静,罗植荣,2019.2017年盛夏湖南持续性暴雨过程的水汽输送和收支特征分析[J].气象,45(9):1213-1226.
CHEN Hongzhuan,YE Chengzhi,CHEN Jingjing,LUO Zhirong,2019.Analysis of Water Vapor Transport and Budget During Persistent Heavy Rainfall over Hunan Province in June 2017[J].Meteor Mon,45(9):1213-1226.