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气象:2019,45(6):766-776
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台风Polly(9216)和Matmo(1410)对辽东半岛降水影响的对比分析
梁军,张胜军,冯呈呈,李婷婷,黄艇
(大连市气象台,大连 116001; 中国气象科学研究院灾害天气国家重点实验室,北京 100081)
Comparison of Synoptic Circulations of Heavy Rain Associated with Typhoons Polly and Matmo over Liaodong Peninsula
LIANG Jun,ZHANG Shengjun,FENG Chengcheng,LI Tingting,HUANG Ting
(Dalian Meteorological Observatory, Dalian 116001; State Key Laboratory of Severe Weather, Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2018-02-07    修订日期:2019-03-18
中文摘要: 台风Matmo(1410)和Polly(9216)影响辽东半岛时的路径近乎重合,但台风Polly造成了大范围的暴雨和大暴雨,而台风Matmo仅个别测站出现暴雨。利用中国气象局热带气旋年鉴、FY-2D卫星的黑体亮度温度(TBB)产品(0.1°×0.1°)、日本气象厅TBB资料、大连地区逐时自动气象站降雨量资料、常规观测资料和欧洲中期数值预报中心ERA-Interim全球再分析资料(0.125°×0.125°),对两个台风影响辽东半岛的降水过程进行了对比分析。结果表明:(1)两个台风均进入西风槽区而变性,在其西侧和北侧分别具有冷锋和暖锋锋生,辽东半岛的降水均发生在台风低压环流北侧的锋生区和环境风垂直切变明显增大过程中。但两个变性台风的大尺度环流背景却差异显著,台风Polly与西北侧较强冷空气相互作用,锋区随高度增加向西北倾斜,且与低空东南急流相连获得丰富水汽供应,强降水持续时间长,而台风Matmo与东北部对流层低层冷空气相互作用明显,锋区随高度增加略向东北倾斜,但其低空急流水汽通道被快速隔断,不稳定度和动力抬升条件减弱,强降水持续时间短。(2)台风Polly和Matmo的降水分布非对称明显,均出现在顺垂直切变方向的左侧,但台风相对于高空槽的位置不同,对流活动发展的方位有所差异。台风Polly中尺度对流活动在其北侧发展旺盛,且向西南弯曲,而台风Matmo对流活动仅发生在台风环流东北侧。(3)台风的强降水落区还与其低层环流内冷、暖平流的活动密切相关。台风Polly西北侧的冷平流加强,辽东半岛位于台风北侧低层冷暖平流交汇区,水平辐合加强,深厚的上升运动维持,而台风Matmo东北侧的冷平流加强,辽东半岛逐渐位于台风西侧,低层为冷平流控制的下沉运动区,大气层结趋于稳定。
Abstract:The tracks of tropical cyclones (TC) Matmo (1410) and Polly (9216) were very similar over Liao-dong Peninsula. However, the former caused only scattered rainstorms, but the latter produced large-scale rainstorms. Using CMA Tropical Cyclone Yearbook, FY-2D temperature of brightness blackbody (TBB) product (0.1°×0.1°), satellite observed TBB data issued by Japanese Meteorological Administration, hourly rainfall observations from Dalian’s automatic weather stations (AWSs), conventional observation and ERA-Interim reanalysis data (0.125°×0.125°), the two TC cases that affected Liaodong Peninsula were compared and diagnosed. The results showed that (1) Polly and Matmo experienced extratropical transition when approaching westerly troughs. Frontogenesis zones were found in the lower layers of them. The western frontal zone had the cold frontal feature and the northern frontal zone had the warm frontal feature. Both of the precipitation over Liaodong Peninsula appeared in the northern frontogenesis processes. Meanwhile, the vertical wind shears were enhanced. But the characteristics of large-scale circulation of the two TCs were quite different. The cold air in the lower and middle troposphere invaded into Polly’s northwest side, the frontal zone slanted towards northwest with height, Polly produced heavy precipitation with a much longer time period due to abundant moisture supply from the low-level southeast jet. However, the frontal zone slanted towards northeast with height under the interaction between Matmo and the low level cold air being from the northeast of the typhoon. It met with a weaker rain rate with poor dynamic lifting condition and being cut-off with the low-level moisture jet. (2) The distributions of rainfall of Polly and Matmo showed clear asymmetric structures when impacting Liaodong Peninsula. The locations of heavy rain mainly occurred in the left along with the direction of the vertical wind shear. However, when the upper-level trough was located over different quadrant of TC, it suffered from a very different formation and strengthening of mesoscale cloud cluster.The convection activity of Polly was located at the north quadrant of typhoon inclining to southwest afterwards, but for Matmo, the convection activity only occurred in the northeast quadrant of typhoon. (3) Severe rainfall was closely related to the cold and warm advections in the typhoon circulation. The cold advection on the northwest side of Polly was strengthened, and Liaodong Peninsula was just controlled by the north of typhoon, possessing the cold and warm advections intersection in low-level circulation, strong low-level convergence, and deep and persistent vertical motion. However, there existed strong cold advection on the northeast side of Matmo, and Liaodong Peninsula was gradually under the west of typhoon, where the cold advection produced downward motion, dynamic lifting was reduced and the atmospheric stratification tended to be stable.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41775048和41575063)、环渤海区域科技协同创新基金项目(QYXM201615、QYXM201702、QYXM201711、QYXM201801、QYXM201805、QYXM201807)共同资助
引用文本:
梁军,张胜军,冯呈呈,李婷婷,黄艇,2019.台风Polly(9216)和Matmo(1410)对辽东半岛降水影响的对比分析[J].气象,45(6):766-776.
LIANG Jun,ZHANG Shengjun,FENG Chengcheng,LI Tingting,HUANG Ting,2019.Comparison of Synoptic Circulations of Heavy Rain Associated with Typhoons Polly and Matmo over Liaodong Peninsula[J].Meteor Mon,45(6):766-776.