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气象:2017,43(3):257-267
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气象卫星的云观测
(国家卫星气象中心,北京 100081)
Understanding Clouds by Meteorological Satellite
(National Satellite Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081)
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本文已被:浏览 2028次   下载 1412
投稿时间:2017-02-14    修订日期:2017-02-24
中文摘要: 云体现着不同尺度天气系统发生、发展和消亡的过程。云还通过反射太阳辐射和阻止地球发射辐射,维持着全球能量平衡。1960年气象卫星的出现,揭开了从浩瀚太空,俯视千变万化云系的历史。气象卫星云图的获取,加深了人们对天气、气候变化过程的认识,推进了大气科学的发展。本文围绕气象卫星云遥感主题,首先概述了利用卫星资料开展云检测、云相态识别、云光学厚度与等效粒子半径反演的原理和方法。而后,着重介绍了各类天气尺度和中尺度天气过程的云系特征。最后,文章回顾了国际卫星云气候方面的工作,展望了未来云观测技术的发展前景。
中文关键词: 气象卫星,云观测
Abstract:Clouds represent weather. Being a modulator of solar heating and thermal cooling of the Earth, clouds are also called “the shutters of the Earth”. In 1960, the first meteorological satellite was launched, demonstrating the new era of cloud observation. The acquisition of meteorological satellite cloud images deepens the understanding of the weather and climate change and accelerates the development of atmospheric sciences. In this paper, the principles and methods of cloud detection, cloud phase determination and retrieval of cloud optical thickness and effective radius using satellite data are first summarized. Then, the cloud features of synoptic scale and mesoscale weather processes are emphatically introduced. Finally, two international satellite cloud climatology projects, as well as the perspectives of future cloud observation technology, are presented.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41201360和61531019)以及“电力微气象灾害监测与预警技术研究及预警体系建立”项目共同资助
引用文本:
卢乃锰,方翔,刘健,闵敏,孙瑞静,2017.气象卫星的云观测[J].气象,43(3):257-267.
LU Naimeng,FANG Xiang,LIU Jian,MIN Min,SUN Ruijing,2017.Understanding Clouds by Meteorological Satellite[J].Meteor Mon,43(3):257-267.