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气象:2016,42(2):192-202
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江苏沿海高速公路低能见度浓雾的气候特征和影响因子研究
(1.江苏省气象服务中心,南京 210008;2.江苏省气象台,南京 210008;3.河南省气象服务中心,郑州 450003;4.江苏省气象科学研究所,南京 210008)
Climate Characteristics and Impact Factors of Low Visibility Heavy Fog on Jiangsu Coast Expressway
(1.iangsu Meteorological Service Center, Nanjing 210008;2.Jiangsu Meteorological Observatory, Nanjing 210008;3.Henan Meteorological Service Centre, Zhengzhou 450003;4.Jiangsu Institute of Meteorological Sciences, Nanjing 210008)
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投稿时间:2015-03-25    修订日期:2015-12-14
中文摘要: 文章对2012年6月至2014年6月期间发生于江苏省沿海高速公路的浓雾过程(能见度<0.5 km)进行统计分析,探讨了低能见度浓雾的气候特征、气象要素变化以及主要环流形势背景。研究结果表明:(1) 低能见度浓雾月分布次数有显著差异,3—6月、12月至次年2月雾发生次数最高,春、冬季高于夏、秋季;03:00—05:00为低能见度生成的高峰时段,08:00左右为消散峰值时段。(2) 能见度低于0.5 km后,如果相对湿度继续增大到97%左右、温度处于0~4℃、风速在0~2 m·s-1、风向在ENE—SSE,能见度可能继续下降到0.2 km以下。(3) 对150366个样本的环流背景统计分析表明,中北部路段的低能见度天气大多数是由锋前雾引起的,主要出现在中低层暖区域内,地面为冷锋前部弱气压场的环流条件下。全路段大面积低能见度天气由辐射雾和平流雾造成,辐射雾天气形势主要是高层为下沉气流,配合地面受弱高压或高压南下;平流雾出现在中低层暖性系统,地面位于入海高压后部或低压倒槽东侧,低层盛行偏东风或东南风。(4) “象鼻型”先期振荡现象适用于沿海高速公路低能见度预报过程,尤其对能见度稳定维持0.2 km以下的浓雾过程有很好的预警和监测作用。
Abstract:This paper analyzed the dense fogs with low visibility (<0.5 km) that occurred from June 2012 to June 2014 on the Jiangsu Coast Expressway, and investigated the climate characteristics, meteorological elements and main circulation situation of these dense fogs with low visibility. The results indicated that there are significant differences in the monthly frequency of the dense fogs. Fogs occur frequently from March to June, and also from December to the next February. The frequency of the dense fog in spring and winter is higher than that in summer and autumn. The peak of the low visibility usually appears during 03:00-05:00 BT in the early morning, and dissipates at around 08:00 BT. If the visibility is lower than 0.5 km, the relative humidity increases to 97%, temperature is 0-4℃, wind speed decreases to less than 2 m·s-1, and wind direction is between ENE and SSE, then the visibility can further decrease to less than 0.2 km. The statistical analysis of the circulation background based on 150366 samples indicates that the low visibility in the northern and central section of the expressway is closely related to prefrontal fog. This section is located in the forepart of the cold front, and the warm sector exists in the mid low level part. The low visibility of the whole expressway is due to the advection fog and radiation fog. The radiation fog exists in the downdrafts of upper air, and the weak pressure field or the high pressure moves to the south on the surface. The advection fog is in the region of thermal advection in the mid low troposphere and behind the high pressure system entering the sea or at the east side of the inverted trough, while southeast and east winds are blowing on the surface. Before the dense fog (the visibility<0.2 km) comes, there is a large amplitude oscillation with obvious “trunk like” fluctuating forepart in terms of the visibility on the Jiangsu Coast Expressway. This feature provides a basis for monitoring and warning of the dense fog with visibility below 0.2 km.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41575135、40975085和41340042)、江苏省气象局预报员专项(JSYBY201305)、江苏省气象局青年基金(Q201409)、江苏省气象服务中心自立课题“沿海高速公路(江苏段)雾的特征分析及其预报方法研究”以及河南省气象局面上项目(Z201515)共同资助
引用文本:
王博妮,濮梅娟,田力,张振东,吴建军,2016.江苏沿海高速公路低能见度浓雾的气候特征和影响因子研究[J].气象,42(2):192-202.
WANG Boni,PU Meijuan,TIAN Li,ZHANG Zhendong,WU Jianjun,2016.Climate Characteristics and Impact Factors of Low Visibility Heavy Fog on Jiangsu Coast Expressway[J].Meteor Mon,42(2):192-202.