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气象:2015,41(3):272-285
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利用GRAPES模式研究气溶胶对云和降水过程的影响
(1.中国气象科学研究院,北京 100081;2.国家气象中心,北京 100081)
Numerical Simulation of Aerosol Effects on Cloud and Precipitation Using GRAPES Model
(1.Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100081;2.National Meteorological Centre, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2014-03-31    修订日期:2014-09-24
中文摘要: 在GRAPES中尺度模式的双参数微物理方案中加入了气溶胶活化参数化过程,实现了对云滴数浓度的预报。选取不同季节两个降水过程进行模拟,并分别开展了不同气溶胶背景下的两个试验进行对比分析,研究气溶胶对云和降水可能的影响。结果表明:气溶胶浓度增加后,因为活化产生了更多尺度较小的云滴,抑制了云雨的自动转化,使大气中滞留了更多的云水,暖云降水减小;另一方面,云水的增加会使冰相粒子,尤其是雪和霰通过碰并云水等过程而增大,最后融化成雨增加冷云降水,同时冰相粒子增加会释放更多的潜热,促进上升气流的发展,进一步增加冷云降水。气溶胶对降水的影响存在空间不一致性,暖云较厚的地方暖雨过程受到的抑制明显,使地面降水减小,冷云厚度相对较厚时,冷云降水的增加会大于暖云降水的抑制,使地面降水增加。同时由于在云降水发展的不同阶段冷暖云的变化,气溶胶对降水的影响也存在着时间不一致性。
Abstract:A parameterization approach of cloud droplet activation is introduced into the original two moment microphysical schemes coupled with GRAPES model. Two precipitation processes are simulated and two experiments with different aerosol concentrations are conducted for both of them. The results show that when aerosol concentration increases, the biggest change of microphysical characteristics is the apparent increase of cloud water content. This is because of the suppressed conversion from cloud droplets to rain drops when more aerosols nucleate into more but smaller cloud droplets, which results in less efficient warm rain processes. On the other hand, with more cloud water left in the air, ice phase particles, especially snow and graupel, can grow through collecting more cloud water and increased snow can also be collected by graupel. Melted snow and graupel eventually produce more rain. Meanwhile, more latent heat will be released with the increase of ice particles, which can invigorate cloud updrafts and further promote rain development. In the simulation region, aerosol effect on precipitation is spatially non uniform. In the region where warm clouds are thick, suppressed warm rain process is the main factor affecting precipitation and surface rainfall is reduced. In spite of this where warm cloud is thin and cold cloud is relatively thicker, cold rain process enhancement is dominant and surface rainfall is increased. Aerosol effects on precipitation is also temporally non uniform because the distributions of warm cloud and cold cloud change during the development of clouds and precipitation.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(41105067)资助
引用文本:
石荣光,刘奇俊,马占山,2015.利用GRAPES模式研究气溶胶对云和降水过程的影响[J].气象,41(3):272-285.
SHI Rongguang,LIU Qijun,MA Zhanshan,2015.Numerical Simulation of Aerosol Effects on Cloud and Precipitation Using GRAPES Model[J].Meteor Mon,41(3):272-285.