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气象:2013,39(3):265-280
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新一代天气雷达灾害性天气监测能力分析及未来发展
(1.中国气象局气象探测中心,北京 100081;2.合肥四创电子股份有限公司,合肥 230061;3.成都信息工程学院,成都 610225)
Analyses on Disastrous Weather Monitoring Capability of CINRAD and Future Development
(1.CMA Meteorological Observation Centre, Beijing 100081;2.Hefei Sichuang Electronic Co. Ltd., Hefei 230061;3.Chengdu University of Information Technology, Chengdu 610225)
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投稿时间:2013-02-26    修订日期:2013-03-04
中文摘要: 自20世纪90年代,我国开展大规模新一代天气雷达建设以来,已初步形成一个对大、中、小尺度灾害性天气监测的天气雷达业务网,并在防灾减灾中发挥了重要作用。本文利用我国新一代天气雷达网获得的大量实例资料分析了新一代天气雷达在实际应用中对大尺度天气系统如:冷锋、温带气旋、江淮切变线、低空急流、台风,中尺度天气系统诸如强对流天气系统的飑线、阵风锋、冰雹和雷暴高压,以及对我国产生重要影响的梅雨锋暴雨的监测能力。同时分析了现有天气雷达业务观测模式中的扫描策略、雷达适配参数设置以及雷达技术体制的特点与存在的问题。在不对现有雷达技术体制和结构做重大改变前提下,有针对性提出了:(1)改进现有业务观测模式:一是增加晴空模式和RHI垂直扫描模式增强对晴空回波以及垂直结构精细化探测能力;二是增设高山观测模式增强对边界层的探测覆盖能力。(2)改进雷达适配参数,采用相位编码技术和双PRF技术,把距离不模糊作为第一优先原则,来解决多普勒脉冲雷达体制下的距离与速度模糊问题。(3)增强雷达对弱回波探测能力,提高雷达的时空分辨率。(4)充分利用雷达网的组网技术,开展协同观测实现对大、中、小灾害性天气系统的时间与空间同步观测。(5)利用双偏振技术,进一步提高雷达定量估测降水的精度以及对相态的识别。并在上述5方面改进的基础上,提出了目前雷达技术升级改造的初步方案。展望了未来天气雷达技术的发展。
Abstract:The large scale CINRAD operational network has been built in China. Using quite a lot of data from the network, this paper analyzed the detection capability of the radar network in monitoring the large scale weather systems including cold front, extratropical cyclone, Jianghuai shear line, low level jet stream and typhoon; the mesoscale weather systems such as squall line, gust front, hail and thunderstorm high in severe convective weathers as well as the Meiyu front rainstorm. In addition, the scanning strategy and parameter setting in the CINRAD operation model as well as the features and problems of its technical system were discussed. The progresses are as follows: (1) Improving the existing observation model: Adding clear air mode and RHI vertical scanning 〖JP2〗mode to strengthen the radar detecting capability to clear air echoes〖JP〗 and the refinement of vertical structure; setting high mountain observation mode to enhance the capability to the boundary layer. (2) Improving radar adaption parameter to solve the problem of range folding and velocity ambiguity. (3) Using pulse compression method to develop the detecting capability to weak echoes and keeping spatial resolution of radar data. (4) Making good use of radar networking technology to realize simultaneous observations in time and space on different scale disastrous systems. (5) Using dual polarization technology to improve the accuracy of quantitative precipitation estimation and identify the precipitation phase state. Based on the above five grogresses, a preliminary scheme of radar technology upgrading was proposed. Finally, an outlook for the development of future CINRAD was presented as well.
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基金项目:“新一代天气雷达建设业务软件系统开发”项目资助
引用文本:
李柏,古庆同,李瑞义,曹俊武,王旭,2013.新一代天气雷达灾害性天气监测能力分析及未来发展[J].气象,39(3):265-280.
LI Bai,GU Qingtong,LI Ruiyi,CAO Junwu,WANG Xu,2013.Analyses on Disastrous Weather Monitoring Capability of CINRAD and Future Development[J].Meteor Mon,39(3):265-280.