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气象:2008,34(4):107-112
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2007年海温和大气环流异常及对我国气候的影响
(国家气候中心, 北京 100081)
Sea Surface Temperature and the General Circulation in 2007 and Their Influences on the Climate of China
(National Climate Center, Beijing 100081)
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投稿时间:2008-03-05    
中文摘要: 2007年我国年平均气温为自1951年以来最高的一年。春季北方沙尘日数偏少,夏季极端强降 水事件频发,淮河流域发生特大暴雨洪涝。秋季江南、华南旱情严重。西北太平洋和南海热 带气旋偏少,但登陆数较常年多1个。对海洋和大气环流的分析表明:2007年赤道中东太平 洋经历了从厄尔尼诺事件到拉尼娜事件的转型;北半球高纬度地区位势高 度场偏高,纬向环流盛行,影响我国的冷空气势力较弱且不易南下,造成我国各季气温偏高 明显。夏季尤其是7月,西太平洋副热带高压异常偏强且稳定控制在江南、华南,有利于低 层的暖湿气流向北输送,和来自高层的冷空气在淮河流域汇合,并导致7月至8月上旬,江南 、华南持续高温少雨天气。2007年南海热带夏季风于5月第5候爆发,于10月第3候结束,时 间均较常年略偏晚,季风强度偏弱。夏季尤其是7月东亚副热带季风偏弱,使得来自孟加拉 湾的暖湿水汽输送至淮河流域后不能到达更偏北的纬度,在淮河流域形成低层水汽辐合区, 造成淮河流域大涝。
中文关键词: 拉尼娜  西太平洋副高  洪涝  干旱
Abstract:2007 is the warmest year since 1951. In the spring of the year, the fr equency of the dust storm is less. And in the summer, extreme heavy rainfall eve nts occurred in many regions, especially along Huaihe river valley. But severe d rought occurred in South China in the autumn. During the whole year, the number of the tropical cyclones (TC) developed from the South China Sea and the western Pacific is less. Among them, eight landed on China. In 2007, the equatorial eastern Pacific experienced an El Nino event in January but La Nina event started s ince August. In the high latitudes of Northern Hemisphere, the geo-potential hei ght anomalies are positive and the zonal circulation prevails in most months. Th us the cold surges are not frequent. In the summer especially in July, the weste rn Pacific subtropical high was stronger and locates over South China stably. Th is is propitious to the transportation of warmer/wetter moisture from the Bay of Bengal to China. But on the other hand, during this period the South China expe rienced an extreme high temperature and drought event due to the stability of h igh pressure. In 2007, the South China Sea summer monsoon onset at the 5th pentad of May and withdrew at the 3rd pentad of October, both are later. Owing to the weak monsoon in July, the warmer/wetter moisture can only be transported to the Huaihe river valley and formed a convergence over the area. Thus the flood event occurred in the area. 
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高辉,王永光,2008.2007年海温和大气环流异常及对我国气候的影响[J].气象,34(4):107-112.
Gao Hui,Wang Yongguang,2008.Sea Surface Temperature and the General Circulation in 2007 and Their Influences on the Climate of China[J].Meteor Mon,34(4):107-112.