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气象:2006,32(11):105-112
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2006年上半年全国生态气象监测与评估研究
(1.国家气象中心,北京 100081;2.国家卫星气象中心)
China Meteorologically-driven Ecological Monitoring and Assessment in the First Half of 2006
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投稿时间:2006-09-05    修订日期:2006-09-10
中文摘要: 为了对2006年上半年全国生态环境进行以气象条件为主要驱动因子的监测与评估,研究创建了基于植被第一性生产力(NPP)估算的生态气象监测与评估指数(EMI)模型。通过计算生态气象指数、划分生态气象等级,进行生态气象监测与评估。2006年上半年全国大部地区生态气象条件较差,平均生态气象优劣评价指数仅为-30;生态气象等级好、中、差的比例大约为2∶45∶53。对我国生态及生产起重要作用的林地、草灌、农田的生态气象等级在中等以上的面积较2005年上半年显著减少。1—6月平均生态气象指数在逐月降低,虽处于正常等级范围之内,但5、6月份处于临界状态已接近较差等级。其主要原因是持续干旱和低温冷害的影响,多起森林与草原火灾和大范围高频度的沙尘天气与生态状况互为因果。所构建的生态气象监测评估模型,有良好的理论基础和科技含量,也有较好的时空分辨能力,可以进行生态气象定量监测和评价,监测与评估结果科学、客观、合理,能够反映气象条件对生态环境的作用。
Abstract:For the meteorologically-driven ecological assessment of China in the first half of 2006,based on the estimate of net primary productivity(NPP),the meteorologically-driven ecological assessment index(EMI)model is developed.Monitoring and assessment show that the ecological and meteorological conditions are worse in the most part of China,and the meteorologically-driven ecological assessment index of China is only-30.The better,moderate,worse proportions of ecological and meteorological condition grade give a ratio of 2∶45∶53.The woodland,grass-shrub-land and farmland area,which are very important for environment and production,have its ecological and meteorological condition grade being better or moderate,and but their area decreases obviously compared with that in the first half of 2005.From January to June,the meteorologically-driven ecological assessment index is receded month by month,it is order but approaches to critical state and even to worse grade almost in May and June.The main causation is the effect of drought and low temperature in a long period of time.The more forest and grass fires and the frequent sandstorm happening in large area are the environment causes and effects.There are some physical and ecological significances in the meteorologically-driven ecological assessment index model.The model is applied and has better space-time resolution.The model was applied to ecological monitoring and assessment in the first half of 2006,its result was objective and reliable.
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基金项目:中国气象局2006年新技术推广项目“中国北方草地生态气象监测预测(CMATG2006M01)”,国家气象中心项目“生态气象业务技术应用研究”的资助
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引用文本:
毛留喜,李朝生,侯英雨,钱拴,唐世浩,2006.2006年上半年全国生态气象监测与评估研究[J].气象,32(11):105-112.
,2006.China Meteorologically-driven Ecological Monitoring and Assessment in the First Half of 2006[J].Meteor Mon,32(11):105-112.