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气象:2006,32(11):3-11
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影响云和降水的动力、热力与微物理因素的研究概述
(1.中国科学院大气物理研究所,北京 100029;2.中国科学院研究生院;3.中国气象局)
Research Reviews of Dynamic, Thermodynamic and Microphysical Factors Affecting Cloud and Precipitation
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投稿时间:2006-01-26    修订日期:2006-07-07
中文摘要: 由于云和降水的发生、发展是大气动力、热力过程与云中微物理过程相结合的产物,因而受到这些过程的共同制约和影响。为了更加详细地了解影响云和降水的动力、热力与微物理因素,分别从3个方面概要性地进行了阐述。(1)动力作用对云和降水发展的影响:主要讨论了风切变、天气系统抬升、地形动力作用和湍流的作用等因素的作用。(2)影响云和降水发展的热力因素:分别对热力扰动、潜热的作用、辐射作用等做了分析。(3)微物理过程对云和降水发展的影响:主要从微物理过程对动力热力过程的影响、带电过程对云降水粒子的影响、以及微物理过程对云降水影响的相对重要性等方面进行讨论。并在最后扼要地指出了在研究云和降水问题时,将动力、热力过程和微物理过程结合起来研究的必要性。
Abstract:Cloud and precipitation are the results of the interactions between atmospheric dynamic, thermodynamic and cloud microphysical processes, thus these processes also restrict and affect their generation and development. For an in-depth understanding the influences of these processes on cloud and precipitation, which can be discussed briefly from the following three aspects: (1)Influences of dynamic factors on cloud and precipitation. Wind shear, synoptic elevation effects, topographical dynamics and turbulence effects are generally analyzed. (2)Influences of thermodynamic factors on cloud and precipitation. Thermodynamic disturbance, latent heat release and radiation processes are analyzed respectively. (3)Influences of microphysical processes on cloud and precipitation. They are, effects of microphysical processes on dynamic and thermodynamic processes, effects of electrification processes on cloud particles, and relative importance of different microphysical processes on cloud and precipitation, which are discussed respectively. Finally, the necessity of considering these three aspects together in study problems of cloud and precipitation is put forward.
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基金项目:国家自然科学基金(40475006),国家“十五”攻关项目(2001BA610A-06)资助
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引用文本:
廖菲,洪延超,郑国光,2006.影响云和降水的动力、热力与微物理因素的研究概述[J].气象,32(11):3-11.
,2006.Research Reviews of Dynamic, Thermodynamic and Microphysical Factors Affecting Cloud and Precipitation[J].Meteor Mon,32(11):3-11.