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干旱及复水对冬小麦根系和产量的影响研究
马青荣, 刘荣花
(河南省气象科学研究所)
Impacts of Drought and Rewatering on Root and Yield of Winter Wheat
MA Qing-rong, LIU Rong-hua
(Henan Institute of Meteorological Science)
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投稿时间:2019-03-04    修订日期:2020-02-09
中文摘要: 在郑州农业气象试验站开展不同程度干旱、复水试验,研究了不同水分条件对冬小麦根系活力、形态及产量的影响,旨在为河南地区冬小麦建立优化灌溉制度,提高抗灾减灾能力提供依据,从而提高水分利用效率、达到节水增产。结果表明,干旱条件下,冬小麦根系活力和根直径均有明显的降低,根长有明显增加,土壤下层所占根系总体积比例增大,且随发育期的推进,下层根系所占比例呈现增大的趋势,水分利用效率有明显提高;随干旱程度的增加,上述变化趋势更加明显。在复水量相同的情况下,在越冬期复水,利于冬小麦根系活力和根直径增加,但不利于根系的向下伸展;在返青期和拔节期复水利于根系向下伸展、水分利用效率提高、理论产量增加,但不利于根系活力和直径的增加;拔节期复水,可适当增大复水量,减少复水次数,以提高水分利用效率。综合根系形态和活力、水分利用效率和产量几方面表现,冬小麦干旱持续发生条件下,在返青期、孕穗期灌水600m3?hm-2左右,可根据干旱程度适当增减灌水量,重旱条件下适当增加灌水次数,少量多灌缓解旱情,重大干旱年份灌水困难条件下可只在拔节期灌水600m3/hm2,以实现产量的减损和节水效果。
中文关键词: 冬小麦  干旱  复水  水分利用效率  产量
Abstract:Via carrying out different degrees of drought, rehydration test in Zhengzhou Agricultural Meteorological Experimental Station, We studied the effects of different water conditions on the root vigor morphology and yield of winter wheat, The purpose is to establish an optimized irrigation system for winter wheat in Henan Province, improve water use efficiency and achieve the goal of water saving and yield increasing. The results showed that under showed that under drought conditions, the root vigor and stem diameter of winter wheat decreased significantly, the root length increased significantly, the proportion of lower soil roots volume increased, in addition with the development of the advance, the proportion of the lower soil roots volume increased, the number of winter grains per spike and grain weight were significantly reduced, water use efficiency improved significantly. Along with the increase of drought degree, the trend is more obvious. In the case of same amount of water recovery, Rehydration during Overwintering was beneficial to increase root vigor and root diameter of winter wheat, while unfavorable to roots extend downward. In the greening and jointing stages of rehydration was benefited to the roots stretched down, water use efficiency, grain weight and theoretical yield increased, but not conducive to the increase of root activity and jointing rehydration, diameter for the purpose of improving water use efficiency, can appropriate to increasing rehydration volume, reducing the number of rehydration. Comprehensive analysis performance of root morphology and vitality, water use efficiency and yield, under the condition of persistent drought in winter wheat,Irrigation was about 600 m3/hm2 at the turning green stage and booting stage, the amount of irrigation can be increased or decreased appropriately according to the degree of drought, appropriate increase of irrigation times under severe drought conditions, in severe drought years, under difficult irrigation conditions, only 600 m3/hm2 can be irrigated at jointing stage to achieve yield loss and water saving effect.
文章编号:201903040092     中图分类号:    文献标志码:
基金项目:中国气象局农业气象保障与应用技术重点开放实验室科学研究基金项目
引用文本:
马青荣,刘荣花,0.[en_title][J].Meteor Mon,():-.
MA Qing-rong,LIU Rong-hua,0.Impacts of Drought and Rewatering on Root and Yield of Winter Wheat[J].Meteor Mon,():-.