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气象:2019,45(1):126-134
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2018年夏季海洋大气特征及对我国气候的影响
顾薇,陈丽娟
(国家气候中心,中国气象局气候研究开放实验室,北京 100081;南京信息工程大学气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心,南京 210044)
Characteristics of Atmospheric and Oceanic Condition and Their Influences on Summer Climate of China in 2018
GU Wei,CHEN Lijuan
(Laboratory for Climate Studies, National Climate Centre, CMA, Beijing 100081;Collaborative Innovation Center on Forecast and Evaluation of Meteorological Disasters,Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044)
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投稿时间:2018-12-14    修订日期:2019-01-11
中文摘要: 为更好地了解2018年夏季(6—8月)我国主要气候异常特征及成因,本文利用我国气象要素站点资料、再分析大气环流资料和全球海温数据分析了2018年夏季我国降水和气温的异常特征、东亚大气环流特征及海温对我国气候的影响。结果显示2018年夏季全国平均降水量较常年同期偏多9.6%,我国中东部地区降水呈现“南北多、中间少”的分布特征,北方和华南大部降水较常年同期偏多、长江中下游降水明显偏少。降水的上述异常特征受到东亚副热带和中高纬大气环流的共同影响。2018年夏季东亚副热带高空急流和西太平洋副热带高压位置都明显偏北,东亚沿岸由南至北为“负—正—负”的高度距平分布, 呈现出“东亚—太平洋型”遥相关负位相的特征,菲律宾附近对流层低层大气维持异常的气旋式环流,东亚副热带夏季风异常偏强。同时,欧亚中高纬度大气呈现“两槽一脊”的异常高度分布特征。在副热带和中高纬大气环流的这种配置下,我国北方地区以异常偏南风为主,有利于暖湿气流的输送,降水偏多;华南地区在偏强的热带对流活动影响下,降水也总体偏多;而长江中下游地区则以明显的辐散下沉运动为主,降水偏少。从外强迫因子来看,2017年10月至2018年4月发生的La Nina事件对东亚夏季风偏强及我国降水“南北多、中间少”的异常特征起到了重要作用。
Abstract:The anomalous climate features in China during the summer (JJA) of 2018, corresponding atmospheric circulation anomalies in East Asia and possible impacts from the ocean are analyzed in this paper. The results show that in the summer (JJA) of 2018, the average precipitation in China is 9.6% more than average. The precipitation in North and South China is more than normal while the precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley is less than average. The atmospheric circulation in summer exhibits a typical feature of strong East Asian summer monsoon. The East Asian subtropical jet and the Northwest Pacific subtropical high are both significantly more northward located than average. In the lower troposphere, a cyclonic circulation dominates the area near the Philippines. At the same time, the mid high latitude atmospheric circulation over Eurasia mainly exhibits a zonal feature. Under the combined impacts of the subtropical and mid high latitude circulation, the transportation of water vapor to North and Northwest China is strengthened and more precipitation is induced in these regions. The preci pitation in South China is also increased because of the strengthened tropical convective activity near South China Sea. However, in the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River Valley, anomalous divergence and subsidence is observed and less precipitation is caused. In addition, it is also revealed that the La Nina event from October 2017 to April 2018 exerted a significant impact on the East Asian summer monsoon circulation and the summer precipitation in China.
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基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划(2015CB453203)、国家科技支撑计划项目(2015BAC03B04)和国家自然科学基金项目(41805067)共同资助
引用文本:
顾薇,陈丽娟,2019.2018年夏季海洋大气特征及对我国气候的影响[J].气象,45(1):126-134.
GU Wei,CHEN Lijuan,2019.Characteristics of Atmospheric and Oceanic Condition and Their Influences on Summer Climate of China in 2018[J].Meteor Mon,45(1):126-134.